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Flashcards in Taxonomy and Microbiology Deck (47)
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1

Biodiversity

Total of the variety of organisms in the biosphere; also called biological diversity

2

Dichotomous key

A tool used to identify organisms. It consists of a series of paired statements that describe alternative possible characteristics of an organism. Statements are prepared in a way that each step produces a smaller sub set.

A: Kite shaped body........go to statement 12
B: Normal body........go to statement 2

3

What are the classification categories

Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

4

Taxa:

Groups of similar organisms

5

What are the 6 main kingdoms and 3 main domains?

Plantae, animalia, Protista, fungi, Archea, Eubacteria (monera)

Bacteria, Archea, Eukarya

6

Binomial nomenclature

Classification system where each species is assigned a two part scientific name. Names are written in italics and the first word is capitalized.

First word is genus
Second is species

7

Taxonomy

The field of biology that deals with classifying organisms

8

Ecology

How is ecology broken down?

Branch of biology that studies interactions between organisms and their interactions with the environment.

Biosphere, biome, ecosystem, community, population, organism(s)

9

Virus?

Why not living?

A particle made of proteins, nucleic acids and sometimes lipids that can replicate inky be infecting living cells.

Not considered alive because living organisms don’t crystallize and they can only reproduce in living cells.

10

Bacteriophage:

A virus that infects bacteria cells

11

Describe lytic infection:

Viruses enters a bacterial cell and causes the cell to transcribe viral genes. Bacteria created viral proteins and nucleic acids. Proteins and nucleic acids then build into new viruses. The infected cell lyses, setting new viruses free.

12

Describe lysogenic infection

Viral DNA inserts into bacterial chromosome creating a prophage. It may replicate for generations. Prophage Can leave chromosome and start the lytic cycle. Influences in environment like radiation, heat, and chemicals can trigger the process.

13

Parts and their function on a microscope

-Base
-light source
-pillar- tilting microscope
-arm-support tune/ carrying
-stage- place for viewing specimen
-slide-holds specimen
-course adjustment knob: adjust stage height
-fine adjustment knob: focussing
-cover glass: flat
-stage clips: hold slide
-concave mirror: reflects light when their no light source
-objective lenses: magnify
-tube: light travels form objective to ocular
-eyepiece/ ocular: magnifies 10x
-iris diaphragm lever: contrast of light and dark in specimen
-iris diaphragm open

14

How is magnification calculated?

40x10=400x

40= objective lens
10= ocular lens
400x= specimen size

15

How does one draw a proper biological drawing?

Sharp pencil or back pen, field of view covers half a page, blank paper, no shading or colouring; stipple to show contrast, no arrows, labels are horizontal , include magnification.

16

Creating a wet mount?

Place drop of water over specimen on a slide using a pipette, then place cover slip on edge to eliminate air bubbles.

17

Prokaryote?

Eukaryotes?

Unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus. Genetic material is in the cytoplasm. (Bacteria)

Organism whose cells contain a nucleus (larger, more variety in species; protists-animals)

18

Describe eubacteria and archaebacteria

Eubacteria: “true bacteria” most common

Archea: love in extreme conditions like hot springs. Have no pepitdoglycan in cell wall.

19

What kind of feeding do bacteria do?

Do most bacteria cause illness?

Most are Heterotroph: require an energy source from another organism.

Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic and are autotrophic: contain chlorophyll for making food from the sun

No!

20

Describe the general structure of bacteria

Cell wall
Cell membrane
Pili& or flagella for movement and stability
Genetic material (plasmid)
Ribosome

21

How do bacteria differ?

-size and function
-movement
-obtaining and release of energy

22

What are the three types of bacterial structures?


What are the three types of bacterial colony groups?

Cocci, spirilla, bacilli

Diplo, staphylo, strepto

23

Heterotroph:
Photoheterotrophs:
Photoautotroph:
Chemoautotroph:

H: Take in organic molecules from environment and organisms to use and both energy and carbon supply.
Ph: like heterotrophs but can also use light energy
Pa: use light energy to convert CO2 into carbon compounds
Ca: use energy released by chemical reactions involving ammonia, hydrogen sulfide.

24

Obligate aerobe:
Obligate anaerobe:
Facultative anaerobe:

WRequiring oxygen for cellular respiration

Fermentation; dies in presence of oxygen

Can either use cellular respiration or fermentation

25

Binary fission

Type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half producing two identical daughter cells.

26

Endospore:

Produced by prokaryotes in unfavourable conditions; a thick internal wall that encloses the DNA and a portion of the cytoplasm.

27

Conjugation:

Some paramecium and prokaryotes exchange genetic info (increases genetic diversity).

28

What are protists?

Unicellular and eukaryotic organisms

29

What are 4 animal like protists?

What are 3 plant like protists?

Whats the special, funky one?

Amoeba, paramecium, trichiomonas, tokophyra

Kelp, seaweed, algae

Euglena-flagella and chloroplasts

30

Describe a paramecium

Habitat, food, structure

-lives in fresh water and by decaying plant matter
-cilia
-trichicysts: capture prey, defensa, anchoring
-maco nucleus for metabolic processes, mico nucleus for reproduction
-eats protozoans, bacteria, algae
-contractile vacuole: rapidly contracts to expel water out of cell through pore. 5is adjusts water volume, maintains water to salt balance, and discrete water soluble waste.