Plants Flashcards Preview

Biology-12 > Plants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Plants Deck (52)
Loading flashcards...
1

Cuticle

Waxy layer covering the epidermis of plants that protects from water loss

2

Stomata

Microscopic opening bordered by guard cells in the leaves of plants through which gas exchange occurs

3

Did you make this brainscape deck?

NO YOU DIDNT SO STOP USING IT! ASK BEFORE SHEEESH! I spent literally 5+ hours making these so for you to steal them is not right. Do your own work or pay me to use these cards. I can tell who is using these cards to btw.

4

Xylem and phloem

Xylem transports water and soluble mineral nutrients from roots upwards. It is responsible for replacing water loss through transpiration and photosynthesis.

Phloem: Translocates sugars made by photosynthetic areas of plants to storage organs like roots and bulbs.

5

Seed

An encapsulated plant embryo; a fertilization ovule of a plant

6

Spore

Small, single called reproductive body that is resistant to adverse conditions.

7

Alternation of generations

Life cycle that has two alternating phases- a haploid (N) phase and a diploid (2N) phase.

8

Photosynthesis

The process of procuring carbohydrates from light energy. Includes light independent and light dependent reactions.

6CO2 +6H2O—Light—> C6H12O6 + 6O2

9

Rhizoid

An outgrowth in a moss

10

Fruit

Sweet, fleshy product of a plant that contains a seed and can be eaten

11

Sorus (sori)

Little packets of sporangia (spores) found on the underside of the frond leaflets.

12

Sporophyte

The asexual and usually diploid phase that produces spores. Dominant in calcular plants.

13

Gametophyte

The gamete producing and usually haploid phase producing the zygote.

14

Cones

The dry fruit of a conifer that releases seeds

15

Ovary

Contains ovules where seeds are fertilized. Will mature into fruit!

16

Pollination

An animal usually an insect carries pollen from flower to flower

17

Transpiration

Loss of water from a plant through its leaves

18

Embryo

Part of a seed containing 1 or 2 cotyledons, tissues for leaves, roots and stems.

19

Cotyledon

The first leaf or pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant.

20

Pollen

Pollen tube

In seed plants the sperm producing male gametophytes.

In seed plants, a tube that forms when a pollen grain lands on the stigma and germinates. The tube grows to reach the egg inside an ovule, where fertilization occurs.

21

Germination

Resumption of growth of the plant embryo

22

Petiole

Thin stalk that connects the blade of a leaf to a stem

23

Archegonium

Antheridium

Egg producing structure, as in the moss life cycle

Sperm producing structure

24

Flower

Seed brewing part of a plant consisting of reproductive organs

25

What are the basic needs of a plant

Water, minerals, gas exchange, light

26

Non vascular plants

Lack vascular tissue and reproduce by releasing spores. Usually live in moist, cool, environments. (Mosses, liverworts, hornworts)

27

Non seed vascular plants

Require continuous film of water through which sperm swim to the egg. Vascular tissue transports water and nutrients throughout plant. Support allows them to grow tall. (ferns)

28

Seed plants

Vascular plants that produce naked seeds, as well as plants that produce flowers and have seeds enclosed in fruit. (Angiosperms or gymnosperms)

29

Fiddle head and habitat of fern

First appearance of a fern sporophyte. When the rhizome grows horizontally in the soil, new fiddleheads become new fronds.

30

What is the above part of a gametophyte called? Below?

Prothallus

Thallus (arch and anth)

31

Describe gymnosperms (evergreens)

-seed coat
-stored food help survive conditions
-adapted for cold/ dry weather
-tough needle like leaves conserve water with thick cuticle and recessed stomata
-naked seeds in cones

32

Pollen cone

Seed cones

Small, near tip of lower branches


Bigger, near tip of higher branches

33

Epidermis

Veins

Cutin

Protective layer

Transports needed materials throughout leaf

Protects from water loss

34

Guard cells

Palisade layer and spongy layer

Controls stromatolites opening and closing

Photosynthesis cells

35

What is the method of reproduction for non vascular plants

Spores

36

Compare gymnosperms and angiosperms

Gymno
-Naked seeds in cones
-Evergreen/ conifers
-Wind pollination
-Needles, thick cuticle, seed coat

Angio
-Flowers and fruit
-Monocots/ dicots
-ovary
-seeds develop in chamber

37

Annuals

Perennials

Biannuals

Live for one growing season then die

Come back every spring

Takes two years to complete its lifestyle. First years it’s small, second year it grows taller.

38

Monocots characteristics

Single cotyledon
Parallel veins
Petals in multiples of 3
Vascular bundles scattered
Fibrous roots

Examples orchids and iris

39

Dicots traits

Two cotyledons
Branched veins
Petals in multiples of 4,5
Vascular ring
Taproot examples roses and maple tree

40

Function of roots, stems, veins and leaves

-Support plant, anchor it, store food, and absorb water and dissolved nutrients from the soil.
-Produces leaves, branches, flowers; hold leaves upward to sun; transport substances through plants.
-transport water through xylem and nutrients through phloem
-photosynthesis and gas exchange

41

Taproot

Fibrous root

Straight tapering root growing vertically downward. (Dicots)

Grow downward and outward with repeating branches to form a mass of roots

42

Dermal tissue

Covers a plant almost like skin

43

Vascular tissue

Forms a pipeline system that supports the plant by transporting water and nutrients

44

Ground tissue

Produces and stores food

45

Trichomes

Tiny projections that help protect the leaf and may give it a fuzzy feel

46

Meristem

Region of unspecialized cells responsible for continuing growth throughout a lifetime. Found in places where plants grow rapidly aka tips, roots, stems.

47

Nodes


Buds

Part of a growing stem where a leaf is attached

Plant structure containing apical meristem tissue that can produce new stems and leaves.

48

Blade

Thin, flattened part of a plant leaf

49

Describe the moss lifecycle

Spores germinate into a young haploid gametophyte. Male gametophytes (anth) release sperm that enter the female gametophyte (arch) by swimming. A zygote is formed and enters the diploid phase. A young sporophyte sprouts into a stalk and capsule or mature sporophyte. The capsule release spores and the cycle continues.

50

Describe the fern life cycle

The underside of a front had sori, which are packets of spores. In the sporangium spores undergo meiosis and become diploid. They are released and germinate into the gametophyte. The prothallus has archegonium and antheridium (tip). The flagellated sperm swim to the eggs during moisture. The fertilized sporophyte zygote becomes diploid. First leaf grows out of the archegonium and roots develop under. Sporophyte develops a rhizome from which fronts project.

51

Describe the life cycle of a coniferous plant

The pollen cone has ovules containing a microsporocyte that under goes meiosis to become a pollen grain. The seed cones have ovules with mega spores that undergo meiosis to create 4 megaspores. A pollen grain blown by wind lands near and egg and is brought to the ovule. A pollen tube will carry two haploid sperm to the egg. One will fertilize it and become a seed made with embryo, stored food and a seed coat. The seed will grow into a sporophyte.

52

What are some plant adaptations?

1. Thin leaves have a thick cuticle to conserve water loss
2. Broad leaves capture sunlight/absorbs water
3. Carnivorous eat insects in nitrogen poor locations
4. Parasitic uses a host for necessary minerals for growth