TC4. genetics, antibiotic resistance, oral & stomach, UTI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TC4. genetics, antibiotic resistance, oral & stomach, UTI Deck (31):

transformation vs transfection

transfOrmation = for prOkaryotes. with plasmids
transfEction = for Eukaryotes. in lab. using viral DNA or + ssRNA


what's special about treating a person with Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)?

DONT GIVE THEM ANTIBIOTICS the damage they cause to the cell will trigger production of more shigalike toxin -> more severe case


the 5 examples of lysogenic conversion

1. Salmonella- O antigen
2. botulinum toxin
3. strep pyogenes toxins for scarlet fever
4. corynebacteria infected with cornephage B make diphtheria
5. phage CTX(flux) makes V. cholerae make cholera toxin


gram negative, lactose positive,
alpha hemolytic
facultative anaerobic

E. coli


the 4 virulence factor in E. coli and what they do

1. type 1 fimbriae - bind to mannose on glycoproteins that line the bladder.
2. P fimbriae is specific to bad E. coli and is required for pyelonephritis. bind to galactose disaccharides on renal cells
3. endotoxin
4. a-hemolysin


to ID e.coli what do you look for in urine? what 2 agars?

urine - nitrite. bc e.coli turns nitrate -> nitrite
MacConkey agar - lactose positive. pink colonies
eosin-methylene blue (EMB) agar - green metallic sheen


gram positive
non hemolytic
coagulase negative
cocci in clusters

UTIs especialy in young newly sexually active females

Staph. saprophyticus

remember, the coagulase negative is important bc thats all the staph besides staph aureus. hemolytic activity varies among the staphs


resistant to novobiocin

staph saprophyticus
important for differentiating it between staph aureus and epidermidis


the ones that can cause complicated UTI/pyelonephritis

Proteus mirabilis
Proteus vulgaris
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Serratia marcescens
Pseudomnas aeruginosa
enterococcus faecalis
Strep agalectiae (group B strep)
Candida albicans
Polyomaviridae: BK virus


gram negative bacilli
lactose negative
can swim or even swarm/crawl
produces H2S (hydrogen sulfide) and urease

Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris


what does the virulance factor urease do and who has it

P. mirabilis and vulgaris have it
it cleaves urea to form ammonia -> increase pH (~8) -> protects bacteria from immune system and antibiotics, causes stones, and makes urine smell like ammonia


gram negative bacilli
lactose fermenting
weakly urease positive
hospital equipment easily contaminated

Klebsiella penumoniae


what about klebsiella pneumoniae helps it escape phagocytosis?

very large polysaccharide capsule (remember picture)


gram negative bacilli
salmon red pigment
likes damp places like showers and soap

Serratia marcescens


gram negative bacilli
in water and soil
grape smell
makes pyocyanin and pyoverdine -> green on plate
what is it and what virulence factor does it have?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
has exotoxin A = ADP ribosylates EF-2. stops protein synthesis


gram positive cocci in chains
catalase negative
very hardy
grow in bile, turn bile esculin agar black

Enterococcus faecalis


gram positive diplococci in chains
catalase negative
bile soluble
bacitracin resistant
can hydrolyze hippurate
positive CAMP test with staph aureus
what is it. who does it affect. clinical implications

Strep agalactiae (group B strep)
infects pregnant women. need to screen women at 35-37 weeks gestation and give antibiotics if necessary so it doesn't affect baby and cause bacteremia, pneumonia, and meningitis


has both yeast and hyphae in infected tissues
true hyphae during invasion, pseudohyphae in infections

candida albicans


enters through respiratory tract -> latent infection in kidney, especially in immunosuppressed
what is it and what infections does it cause in each patient group

polyomaviridae: BK virus
1. tubulointerstitial nephritis and ureteric stenosis in kidney transplant patients,
2. hemorrhagic cystitis in bone marrow transplant patients


gram negative spirochete
use silver stain
reservoir is wild and domestic animals, transmitted by animal urine in water
what is it and what infection does it cause?

Leptospira interrogans
causes leptospirosis (weil's dz) - flu like illness, conjunctival suffusion (crazy red looking eye)***,
if untreated can lead to hepatitis, renal failure, meningitis


gram positive cocci in chains
beta hemolytic
catalase negative
bacitracin sensitive
what precedes infection of this organism and what is it

strep pyogenes (group A strep)
preceded by pharyngitis or impetigo (skin infection with golden crust). throat or skin, throat or skin.
it causes glomerulonephritis. post strep GN.


what are the most problematic antibiotic resistant organisms? ESKAPE

Enterococcus faecium (Vancomycin resistant)
Staph aureus (MRSA) (SSmec)
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Enterobacter species

bonus: mycobacterium


what "thing" gives staph methicillin resistance, turning them from MSSA to MRSA

SCCmec. staphylococcal cassette chromosome. it's a gene cassette. it makes alternative PBP2a transpeptidase that is not inhibited by antiobiotics


gram positive cocci
catalse negative
alpha hemolytic
optochin resistant
normal oral microbiota

viridans streptococci, S. mutans

btw strep pneumoniae is optochin SENSITIVE


spiral bacterial with endoflagella

what is it, what does it cause

treponema denticola
causes ginigivits, periodontitis, and
VINCENT'S ANGINA aka acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) aka trench mouth. your gums gut effed up.


Gramnegative bacilli
spindle shaped anaerobe in oral cavity

it also causes ANUG/vincent's angina (as in so does tremponema denticola, remember)


high risk HPV types

low risk types

high risk: 16, 18, 31, 45

low risk: 6, 11 (these cause squamous papillomas and oral condylomata acuminata)


syncytia and cowdry tape A nuclear inclusions, found in Tzanck smears (from base of lesion) caused by which virus?

HSV. herpesveridae


presentation of measles. what is the pathognomic finding?

cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, photophobia (CCCB) + fever

pathognomic finding: Koplik spots = gray weight lesions w/ red base in mouth near parotid duct (inner cheek). can then spread to face, then to body and extremities. don't get mixed up with and foot mouth dz which has vesicular lesions w/ vesicular fluid


which form of lesihmania braziliensis would you find to diagnose? and how is it transmitted (form and which animal)

sand fly bite as flagellated promastigote
diagnosed by finding amastigotes


candida prepared in what solution will grow budding yeast +- pseudohyphae?

KOH preparation