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Flashcards in Teacher Training Deck (93)
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1
Q

What are the 5 internal vayus?

A
Prana
Apana
Samana
Udanya
Vyana
2
Q

What are the 5 external vayus?

A

Kurma (tortoise, eyes)
Krikara (partridge, sneezing, hunger, belching)
Devadatta (gift of the gods, yawning)
Naga (serpent)
Dhanamjaya (giver of victory, movement of sound throughout the body)

3
Q

What are the 5 yamas?

A
Ahimsa (non-violence)
Satya (truth)
Asteya (non-stealing)
Brahmacharya (moderation, channeling emotions)
Aparigraha (non-possessiveness)
4
Q

What are Patanjali’s 5 niyamas?

A

Saucha (purity, cleanliness of thought, mind and body. Traditionally, this item is listed under Yama; this word means purity.)
Santosha (contentment; happy satisfaction; good contentment.)
Tapas (austerity, heating practices; spiritual effort; austerity)
Swadhyaya (self-education; self study, study to know more about God and the soul, which leads to introspection on a greater awakening to the soul and God within.)
Ishwara Pranidhana (surrender to God; devotion; devotion to a cause)

5
Q

Who brought yoga to the West and who were his 3 protégés?

A

Krishnamacharia
His son Desekechar
Iyengar
Jois

6
Q

What are the 7 vital principles in Vijnana?

A
Relaxation or undoing the body
Emptying the mind
Intent
Rooting
Connecting
Breathing
Elongating
7
Q

What are the 10 sections of asana?

A
Surya namaskar
Sitting poses
Standing poses
Forward bends
Twists 
Hand balances
Backbends
Leg stretches
Inversions
Savasana
8
Q

Sukha

A

Good space. Openness. Relaxation without dullness

9
Q

Staira

A

alertness without tension. Stable. Steadiness. Stand. Stirrum

10
Q

Duhkha

A

Bad space. Suffering. Unsatisfcation; lack distress; sorrow; that which is unsatisfactory because it is impermanent. From “dur,” meaning “bad,” plus “kha,” meaning “state.

11
Q

Yoga

A

Samadhi

12
Q

Chitta

A

Mind, consciousness

13
Q

Vritti

A

Fluctuations, churnings, chatter

14
Q

Nirodhah

A

Discipline, restraint, control of

15
Q

Klista

A

Afflictions, like sorrow or conflict. Moves us away from liberation. Caused by kleshas

16
Q

Aklista

A

Non-affliction. Ie, liberation.

17
Q

Samskaras

A

Mental, vocal, or action based imprints. All thoughts words, and actions lead to imprints.

18
Q

The 5 kleshas

A

The 5 afflictions

Avidya (Ignorance, lack of spiritual knowledge. Also the field for the other 4 kleshas)
Asmita (I-am-ness; pride)
Raga (Attraction)
Dvesa (Aversion)
Abhinivesah (Desire for continuity)
19
Q

The 5 fluctuations

A
Correct cognitions
Error
Imagining
Sleep
Memory
20
Q

Abhyasa

A

Practice. Sitting again and again with a goal in mind. (Self-realization)

21
Q

Vairaigya

A

To be colourless (the mind is not coloured… a crystal is coloured by the flower, but a yogi knows the crystal is pure and colourless)

22
Q

The 3 gunas

A

The 3 qualities, the constituent principles, the building blocks of nature. Guna: Quality; attribute; characteristic; excellence; rope; subsidiary; mode

1) Satva (Pure, luminous, no sorrow, balance)
2) Rajas (Passionate, arising from selfish desire and attachment.
3) Tamas (Born of ignorance, indolence, and sleep. Dark, slothful)

23
Q

Om (Aum)

A

“Oh god”
“Oh god, let the teachings of my teachers guide me in every endeavor”

A - Creator, Brahmah, Waking
U - Sustainer, Vishnu, Dreaming
M- Destroyer, Redeemer, Shiva, Dreamless Sleep

24
Q

Matri

A

Cultivation of loving kindness, for those who are happy

25
Q

Karuna

A

Compassion, for those who are suffering

26
Q

Mudita

A

Sympathetic joyfulness upon seeing someone perform meritous acts

27
Q

Upeksha

A

Non-judgement, equinimity

28
Q

Tonglan

A

Buddhist practice of taking on someone’s suffering, and breathing it out

29
Q

Karma

A

Action (Mental, physical, or vocal)

30
Q

Karmashaya

A

Storehouse of karma.

31
Q

What are the 4 sitting pose cycles?

A

1) padmasana
2) vajrasana
3) virasana
4) baddha konasana

32
Q

What are the 5 standing pose cycles?

A

1) uttanasana
2) vrksasana
3) trikonasana
4) virabhadrasana 1 & 2
5) prasarita padottanasana

33
Q

Who was Vyasa, the pandit?

A

The first commentator of Patanjali

34
Q

What comprises svadyaya, according to Vyasa?

A

Self-study thru Study and repetition of mantras, to come closer to true self. Not the psychological I, but exposing dif layers of the self (language, conceptualization, imagination, memory, desire, aversion, fear, etc)

35
Q

What is the danger of tapas and ishvara Pranidhana without svadyaya?

A

Person may become strong, but w out clarity and leads to fundamentalism and violence.

36
Q

What is the danger of svadyaya and ishvara without tapas?

A

Lack of strength and power of action

37
Q

What is the danger of tapas and svadyaya without ishvara?

A

Arrogance and megalomania

38
Q

What are the 2 objectives of Kriya Yoga, according to the sutras?

A

Samadhi (wide mind)

Weakening of the 5 kleshas

39
Q

Viveka

A

The ability to discern the right path

40
Q

abhinivesa

A

Self-preservation; instinctive clinging to life and the fear that one may be cut off from all by death; will to live; strong desire; fear of letting go of the stories of “I, me, mine”

41
Q

abhyasa

A

Practice; action; method; continuous endeavor; repetition; exercise; exertion. From the verb root “as”, meaning to throw, plus “abhi” meaning toward.

42
Q

Pranayama

A

(from prana and ayama, “life/breath extension”): breath control, the fourth limb (anga) of Patanjali’s eigthfold path, consisting of conscious inhalation (puraka), retention (kumbhaka), and exhalation (recaka); at an advanced state, breath retention occurs spontaneously for longer periods of time

43
Q

Pratyahara

A

(“withdrawal”): sensory inhibition, the fifth limb (anga) of Patanjali’s eightfold path

44
Q

Patanjali

A

compiler of the Yoga Sutra, who lived c. 150 C.E.

45
Q

Prajna

A

(“wisdom”): the opposite of spiritual ignorance (ajnana, avidya); one of two means of liberation in Buddhist yoga, the other being skillful means (upaya), i.e., compassion (karuna)

46
Q

Ahimsa

A

(“nonharming”): the single most important moral discipline (yama). Non-injury. Nonviolence. From the verb root “hims,” meaning “to injure,” lus the prefix “a”, meaning “not.” The word has not merely the negative and restrictive meaning of “nonkilling” or “nonviolence,” but the positive and comprehensive meaning of “love embracing all creation.”

47
Q

Upanishad

A

(“sitting near”): a type of scripture representing the concluding portion of the revealed literature of Hinduism, hence the designation Vedanta for the teachings of these sacred works; cf. Aranyaka, Brahmana, Veda

48
Q

Tantra

A

(“Loom”): a type of Sanskrit work containing Tantric teachings; the tradition of Tantrism, which focuses on the shakti side of spiritual life and which originated in the early post-Christian era and achieved its classical features around 1000 C.E.; Tantrism has a “right-hand” (dakshina) or conservative and a “left-hand” (vama) or unconventional/antinomian branch, with the latter utilizing, among other things, sexual rituals

49
Q

Tapas

A

(“glow/heat”): austerity, penance, which is an ingredient of all yogic approaches, since they all involve self-transcendence

50
Q

Tattva

A

(“thatness”): a fact or reality; a particular category of existence such as the ahamkara, buddhi, manas; the ultimate Reality (see also atman, brahman)

51
Q

What are the eight limbs of Patanjali?

A
  1. Yama : Universal morality
  2. Niyama : Personal observances
  3. Asanas : Body postures
  4. Pranayama : Breathing exercises, and control of prana
  5. Pratyahara : Control of the senses
  6. Dharana : Concentration and cultivating inner perceptual awareness
  7. Dhyana : Devotion, Meditation on the Divine
  8. Samadhi : Union with the Divine
52
Q

Nadi

A

(“conduit”): one of 72,000 or more subtle channels along or through which the life force (prana) circulates, of which the three most important ones are the ida-nadi, pingala-nadi, and sushumna-nadi

53
Q

What are the ten traditional Hindu niyamas

A

1) Hri: remorse, being modest and showing shame for misdeeds;
2) Santosha: contentment; being satisfied with the resources at hand - therefore not desiring more;
3) Dana: giving, without thought of reward;
4) Astikya: faith, believing firmly in the teacher, the teachings and the path to enlightenment;
5) Ishvarapujana: worship of the Lord, the cultivation of devotion through daily worship and meditation, the return to the source;
6) Siddhanta shravana: scriptural listening, studying the teachings and listening to the wise of one’s lineage;
7) Mati: cognition, developing a spiritual will and intellect with the guru’s guidance;
8) Vrata: sacred vows, fulfilling religious vows, rules and observances faithfully;
9) Japa: recitation, chanting mantras daily;
10) Tapas: the endurance of the opposites; hunger and thirst, heat and cold, standing and sitting etc.

54
Q

What are the five Buddhist niyamas?

A

1) kammaniyāma “the constraint of kamma”, i.e. good actions produce good results and bad actions produce bad results. This constraint is said to be epitomised by [Dhammapada] verse 127 which explains that the consequences of actions are inescapable;
2) utu-niyāma “the constraint of the seasons”, i.e. in certain regions of the earth at certain periods the flowering and fruiting of trees all at one time (ekappahāreneva), the blowing or ceasing of wind, the degree of the heat of the sun, the amount of rain-fall, some flowers like the lotuses opening during the day and closing at night and so on;
3) bīja-niyāma “the constraint of seeds or germs”, i.e. a seed producing its own kind as barley seed produces barley;
4) citta-niyāma “the constraint of mind”, i.e. the order of the process of mind-activities as the preceding thought-moment causing and conditioning the succeeding one in a cause and effect relation;
5) dhamma-niyāma “the constraint of dhammas”, i.e. such events like the quaking of the ten thousand world-systems at the Bodhisatta’s conception in his mother’s womb and at his birth. At the end of the discussion Sumaṅgalavilāsinī passage the Commentary says that dhammaniyāma explains the term dhammatā in the text of the Mahāpadāna Sutta (D ii.12) (Cf. S 12.20 for a discussion of the use of the word dhammaniyamatā in the suttas)

55
Q

What is Patanjali’s first niyama (personal observance)?

A

Saucha - Purity
The first niyama is sauca, meaning purity and cleanliness. Sauca has both an inner and an outer aspect. Outer cleanliness simply means keeping ourselves clean. Inner cleanliness has as much to do with the healthy, free functioning of our bodily organs as with the clarity of our mind. Practicing asanas or pranayama are essential means for attending to this inner sauca. Asanas tones the entire body and removes toxins while pranayama cleanses our lungs, oxygenates our blood and purifies our nerves. “But more important than the physical cleansing of the body is the cleansing of the mind of its disturbing emotions like hatred, passion, anger, lust, greed, delusion and pride.”

56
Q

What is Patanjali’s second niyama?

A

Santosa - Contentment
Another niyama is santosa, modesty and the feeling of being content with what we have. To be at peace within and content with one’s lifestyle finding contentment even while experiencing life’s difficulties for life becomes a process of growth through all kinds of circumstances. We should accept that there is a purpose for everything - yoga calls it karma – and we cultivate contentment ‘to accept what happens’. It means being happy with what we have rather than being unhappy about what we don’t have.

57
Q

What is Patanjali’s third niyama?

A

Tapas – Disciplined use of our energy
Tapas refers to the activity of keeping the body fit or to confront and handle the inner urges without outer show. Literally it means to heat the body and, by so doing, to cleanse it. Behind the notion of tapas lies the idea we can direct our energy to enthusiastically engage life and achieve our ultimate goal of creating union with the Divine. Tapas helps us burn up all the desires that stand in our way of this goal. Another form of tapas is paying attention to what we eat. Attention to body posture, attention to eating habits, attention to breathing patterns - these are all tapas.

58
Q

What is Patanjali’s fourth niyama (personal observance)?

A

Svadhyaya – Self study
The fourth niyama is svadhyaya. Sva means “self’ adhyaya means “inquiry” or “examination”. Any activity that cultivates self-reflective consciousness can be considered svadhyaya. It means to intentionally find self-awareness in all our activities and efforts, even to the point of welcoming and accepting our limitations. It teaches us to be centered and non-reactive to the dualities, to burn out unwanted and self-destructive tendencies.

59
Q

What is Patanjali’s fifth niyama (personal observance)?

A

Isvarapranidhana - Celebration of the Spiritual
Isvarapranidhana means “to lay all your actions at the feet of God.” It is the contemplation on God (Isvara) in order to become attuned to god and god’s will. It is the recognition that the spiritual suffuses everything and through our attention and care we can attune ourselves with our role as part of the Creator. The practice requires that we set aside some time each day to recognize that there is some omnipresent force larger than ourselves that is guiding and directing the course of our lives. Divine ideal of pure awareness (isvara); surrender, dedication (pranidhanat)

60
Q

advaita

A

Non-dualism; nonduality. Literally “not two”, from “a”, meaning “not”, plus “dvaita”, meaning “dual” or “two”

61
Q

Agni

A

Fire. A Vedic god.

62
Q

ahankara

A

The concept of individuality, from the verb root “kr,” meaning “action”, plus “aham,” meaning “I”; ego or egoism; literally the “I-maker”, the state that ascertains “I know”’ “I-maker,” source of egoism; the sense that identification is occurring.

63
Q

ananda

A

Bliss; joy; delight; a type of samadhi. From the verb root “nand,” meaning “to rejoice.”

64
Q

anandamaya kosha

A

The sheath (kosha) of joy or bliss (ananda) enveloping the atman; the felt sense of everything being okay.

65
Q

anatman

A

With substance; non-self. From “an,” meaning “not”, plus “atman,” meaning “self.”

66
Q

annamaya kosha

A

The sheath of food

67
Q

apana

A

“carrying-downwards breath”; inspired breath; out-breath; exhalation; digestive energy. From the root “an,” meaning “to breathe”, plus “apa,” meaning “away.” The downward, contracting, rooting movement characteristic of exhaling. It is based at the center of the perineum, the Muladhara Chakra. APan is said to tether prana. The inner experience of hatha yoga begins by consciously uniting prana with apana, to feel their actions within each other.

68
Q

aparigraha

A

Nonposessession, nograsping; nondesiring; not greedy; not being acquisitive; freedom from hoarding or collecting.

69
Q

asana

A

Posture; seat; to “sit with”

70
Q

asmita

A

The sense of “I,” egoism; the state of concentration; an impurity. A klesha.

71
Q

ashtanga

A

Literally, “eight limbs.” Refers to a yoga practice that leads to deep, spontaneous meditation and complete liberation. The variety of limbs guarantees that the awareness operates in all spheres of one’s life, so that no distorition, perversion, or fantasy will attempt to usurp the solid ground of real yogic insight. In many of the Yoga Upanishads, the eight

72
Q

atha

A

The present moment, a term used to express a beginning; doubt; interrogation; condition; “after, then, now.”

73
Q

atman

A

The inner self. “atma” means “breath”, from the verb root “at,” meaning “to breathe,” or “ap,” meaning “to pervade” or “reach up to”.

74
Q

avidya

A

One of the five kleshas (afflictions). Not seeing things as they are; lack of wisdom, ignorance of one’s true nature; from the root verb “vid,” meaning “to know”, plus the prefix “a”, meaning “not.”

75
Q

bandha

A

Bond; valve; control; determination. From the verb root “bandh,” meaning “to bind.”

76
Q

bhakti

A

Loving devotion. From the verb root “bhajj,” meaning “to love, worship, revere.”

77
Q

bhuta

A

Element; gross elemental principle. From the verb root “bhu,” meaning “to become” or “to exist.”

78
Q

bhujanga

A

Cobra

79
Q

Brahma

A

The creator of the universe; one of the Indian trinity comprising Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra.

80
Q

brahmacharya

A

The fourth yama. Wise use of sexual energy; a code of conduct; dwelling in Brahman; a student; “the path that leads to Brahman” or “moving in Brahman”’ a life of celibacy, religious study and self-restraint; impeccable conduct.

81
Q

buddhi

A

intellect; the discriminative faculty; perception. From the verb root “budh,” meaning “to enlighten, to know”

82
Q

buddhindriyas

A

Sense capacities, i.e., hearing, feeling, seeing, tasting, and smelling.

83
Q

chakra

A

Wheel or circle; center; disc; plexus; centers in the body; energy center. From the verb root “car,” meaning “to move.”

84
Q

citta

A

Conciousness; where name and form meet. From the verb root “cit,” meaning “to perceive, to observe, to think, to be aware, to know”

85
Q

dharana

A

The sixth limb of Patanjali. Concentration.

Meditation; support; single-mindedness; “holding bearing”; to keep in rememberance.

86
Q

dhyana

A

The seventh limb of Patanjali. Mediation

Concentration.

87
Q

dvesa

A

A klesha. Antipathy; hatred; aversion. From the verb root “dvis,” meaning “to hate.”

88
Q

garuda

A

Eagle; Vishnu’s vehicle; “devourer.”

89
Q

granthi

A

Knot. From the root “granth,” meaning “to string together.”

90
Q

halahala

A

Poisonous herb; metaphor for samsara

91
Q

ida nadi

A

The psychic nerve or tube on the right side of the spine; a nadi or channel of energy starting from the left nostril, then moving under the crown of the head and thence descending to the root of the spine. In its course it conveys lunar energy and is therefore called Chandra nadi (channel of lunar energy.)

92
Q

Indra

A

Ruler; chief (of the gods in the Vedic pantheon); mighty; powerful.

93
Q

jiva

A

Individual soul; life; embodied self; living entity. From the verb root “jiv,” meaning “to live.”