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Anatomy and Physio Final > Tears > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tears Deck (46):
1

How much tears are produced per 16 hours of wakefulness

0.5-1.25g of tears

2

what is the salt composition of tears

Na, K, Cl, HCO3

3

Tears are _____ at low secretion rates and _____ at higher secretion rates

hyperonic
isotonic

4

what kind of secretory cells are in the lacrimal gland

acinar cells

5

what divides the lacrimal gland into the palpebral and orbital portion

aponeurosis of the levator muscle

6

how many ducts does the orbital portion drain via into the palpebral portion

12

7

what does the palpebral portion open into

the superior fornix

8

what are the acini made up of

basal myoepithelial cell layer w/ inner columnar secretory cells

9

how do the myoepithelial cells force secretions into the tubular drainage system

contractions

10

when do the lacrimal glands develop completely

the 3rd month post-natal

11

what type of secretions come from the lacrimal gland

mainly serous, some mucous but they are slow producing
-sero-mucous secretion

12

the lacrimal gland is a __________ that secretes the major portion of _______ into the tear film

tubloacinar exocrine gland
protein, electrolytes, and water

13

what kind of glands are meibomian glands

sebaceous

14

where are the meibomian glands located

tarsal plate (30-40 upper, 20-130 lower lid)

15

what do the meibomian glands secrete sebum via

holocrine secretion

16

how are meibomian glands regulated by

control of holocrin secretoin or lipid synthesis

17

what do the sebaceous glands of zeis secrete? into what?

sebum into hair follicle

18

what prevents the eyelash shaft from becoming brittle

sebaceous gland of zeis

19

what are the glands of moll? where do they empty intO?

modified sweat glands
follicle, zeis gland duct, or lid margin

20

where are the accessory lacrimal glands of krause found

stroma of the conjunctival fornix. 20-40 upper/6-8 in lower

21

where are the accessory glands of wolfring found

orbital border of the tarsal plate. less numerous

22

what kind of secretion do the accessory lacrimal glands of krause and wolfing do

sero-mucous secretion, much less than lacrimal gland

23

what kind of cells are conjuctival glands?

goblet cells

24

what cells contribute mucuous to the layer of tears nearest the surface of the eye

conjuctival glands. mucous aids in wetting the surface so the tears spread evenly

25

what is a minor producer of aqueous layer and secretes electrolytes and water

corneal and conjunctival epithelia

26

what kind of cells are corneal and conjunctival epithelia

stratified squamous cells that produce mucin

27

what is the carbohydrate chain attached to the microvillae that is a dense membrane bound mucin layer with numerous microvillous processes

glyocalyx

28

what are the layers of the tear film (3)

superficial oily layer, tear fluid layer, mucoid layer

29

which tear film layer decreases the evaporation of the underlying aqueous layer

superficial oily layer

30

which tear film layer is contains and supplies the cornea with oxygen

tear fluid layer

31

which tear film layer do contact lenses interfere w/

tear fluid layer

32

which tear film layer allows for wetting of the cornea

mucoid layer

33

which tear film layer permits the hydration fluid (aqueous layer) to be evenly spread over the cornea

mucoid layer

34

in afferent innervation of the tear glands, which nerve causes corneal sensation to cuase tearing

long ciliary nerve (CN V1)

35

which cranial nerve is responsible for the main secretion of the tear film in the parasympathetic efferent innervation of the tear gland

facial nerve-greater petrosal nerve

36

what kind of tearing occurs under normal conditions

basal tearing

37

reflex secretion involves the emptying of the

large lacrimal glands

38

this type of tearing is always bilateral

central

39

reflex tears are from lacrimal gland, basal tears are from accessory glands. what theory

classical theory

40

what do the conjunctival vessels do during lid closure

dilate

41

the immune response realeases...
and blocks the release of....

cytokines
neurotransmitters (Ach and NE)

42

what do uncommon dry eyes have

decreased spreadin

43

what do common dry eyes have

decreased secretion OR increased evap

44

which type of dry eye worsens during the day, have thick and viscous tears, and low schirmer

keratitis sicca

45

which type of dry eye worsens in the morning with watery tears and a high schirmer test

meibomianitis

46

why do people with sjogrens syndrome have dry eye

inflammatory response