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Anatomy and Physio Final > Uvea > Flashcards

Flashcards in Uvea Deck (91):
1

the uvea contains 3 structures.....

1. ciliary body
2. iris
3. choroid

2

the main function of the choroid is to...

provide nutrition to the retina

3

the main function of the ciliary body are...TRIPLE A

1. accommodation
2. aqueous humor formation
3. absorption of light

4

the main function of the iris is to

control the retinal illumination and the image quality

5

uveal properties
1. highly ____
2. richly ____
3. _____ specilization

1. vascular
2. innervated
3. regional

6

the regions of the ciliary body are...

pars plana and pars plicata

7

post. region of the ciliary body that is continuous w/ the retina and choroid

pars plana

8

the junction btwn the ciliary body and retina

ora serrata

9

anterior, ridged and elevated portion region of the ciliary processes that produce aqueous from the blood supply

pars plicata

10

ciliary body structure
1. forms ____ ring
2. triangular ____mm wide
3. firmly attached to _______
4. extends to _____

1. complete
2. 6mm
3. scleral spur
4. ora serrata

11

the vessels in the pars plicata have a high _______ and are _____

internal pressure
fenestrated

12

the non-pigmented inner layer of the ciliary epithelium ...
1. produces ______
2. continuous w/ the _____ retina
3. continous w/ _______ epithelium of iris

1. aqueous humor
2. neural retina
3. pigment

13

the pigemented outer layer..
1. continuous w/ ____
2. continuous w/ ______ muscle of iris

1. RPE
2. dilator

14

the layers of the ciliary body are....(3)

1. 2 layers of epithelium: pigmented/non
2. stroma
3. muscle

15

what kind of muscle is the ciliary body muscle
attached to _____
controls the shape of the _____

highly vascularized smooth muscle
scleral spur
lens

16

the ciliary muscle is densely _______

innervated.
a diffuse innervation system allows a single nerve to innervate many fibers

17

contraction of the ciliary muscle moves the ciliary body _______
- _____ relax
-____ increases in power: accomodation
- no _____

anteriorly
zonules
lens
antagonist

18

no antagonist so why does the lens move back to the original position

because of the elastic membrane of the choroid which acts as a spring

19

parasympathetic innervation is done by CN ___ and _____

3
ciliary ganglion

20

sympathetic innervation is ____% of terminals and is done by the _______

1%
superior cervical ganglion

21

sensory innervatoin is done by CN ____ and the ant ______

5-opthalmic portion
ant. stroma possibly baroreceptor

22

-during development of the eye, the neural tube invaginates until it forms a _______ cup
-the outer layer of the cup is _____
-the inner layer is ______

-a double layered cup
-pigmented
-unpigmented (until it reaches the iris where it becomes pigmented)

23

the inner layer of the ciliary epithelium is _______
the outer layer is ________

transparent
highly pigmented

24

by the time the embryo is 4mm in length, the primary optic vesicle has moved ____ toward the neural tube
- lens ______ begins
- _________ collapses onto itself
-inner ________ becomes neural retina
-outer part becomes ______

outward
-lens induction
-optic vessel
-invagination
-RPE

25

embryonic invagination of the optic cup leads to the _______ of the photorecptor outer segment and the RPE

appositoin (apex to apex)

26

the invaginating inner wall gives rise to the ________ which includes the photoceptors, bipolar, ganglion, horizontal, and amacrine cells

neural retina

27

the obliterated space btwn the POS and the PE is a residuum of the ventricular cavity. this is a potential space called the ....

ocular ventricle

28

basement membrane of the RPE is the....

bruch's membrane

29

the basement of the neural retina becomes the ....

internal limiting membrane

30

the inner limiting membrane is made by the...

muller cells and their feet

31

in a young eye, the ciliary epithelium:
unpigmented:
1. _____ and _____ interdigitations
2. ____ junctional complexes

pigmented:
_____ granules

1. infolding and lateral
2. apical

-melanin

32

infolding and later interdigitations are important for...

generating aqueous humor

33

apical junctional complexes hold_______ when under stress from muscles and zonules

cells together

34

in an older eye, the ciliary epithelium:
unpigmented:
1. ______ basal ends
2. ____ of basement membranes
3. _____ pull apart and the ILM protrudes
pigmented:
1. ________ basal ends

1. irregular
2. thickening
3. cells

1. irregular

35

the interdigitating surfaces of the pigmented and nonpig epithelium are joined together by ______ that form a _________ barrier to molec such as proteins

tight junctions
blood/aqueous barrier

36

what happens to the blood barrier w/ inflammation, trauma, and vasucalr disease
-aqueous then becomes _____

breakdown
-cloudy and flare is seen bc of large molec inside

37

the presence of gap junctions btwn the cells allows _______ of ions w/in the epithelial layers

free movement

38

in this iris, the tight junctions are found on the ...
what type

vascular endothelial cells as the capillaries
-non-fenestrated impermeable type

39

aqueous humorformation is formed by:
1. _____ of ions and molecules
2. ______ of plasma in _____
3. _________ of Na into ______ chamber by the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium

1. diffusion
2. ultrafiltration, stroma
3. active secretion, posterior

40

is ultrafiltration active or passive?

passive bitch.
describes the bulk fucking flow of plasma across the fenestrated ciliary capillary endothelia into the ciliary stroma

41

secretion of aqueous humor:
1. _______ diffusion and ______ of water and ions into the stroma
2. ________ of Na into post. chamber depends on _______ exchange
2. formation of _____ ions and _____ ions
3. exchange
4. _____ follows he ion gradient created by the ______ pump
5. ______ follows ions

1. passive, ultrafiltration
2. ultrafiltration, Na/H
2. H+, HCO3-

4. bicarbonate, Na+/K+
5. water

42

what enzyme provides the energy for the metabolic pump that transports Na into the post chamber by catalyzing the breakdown of ATP into ADP

Na+K+ ATPase

43

what catalyzes the rxn of the combo of carbondioxide into carbonic acid and its subsequent breakdown into H and bicarbonate

carbonic anhydrase

44

what enzyme affects production of cAMP

adenylate cyclase

45

adrenergic receptors affect smooth muscle tone and vascular tone in ...(3 things)

1. iris
2. ciliary body
3. endothelial linings of outflow pathways

46

the increased OUTFLOW facility is mediated by ...

adenylate cyclase cAMP pathway
also...
PROBABLY, but just PROBABLY as a result of prostaglandin production -___-

47

waht reduce aqueous humor production through an adenylate cyclase cAMP pathway (inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity)

adrenergic alpha2 agonists
beta2 antagonists

48

cholinergic receptors are located in...

the ciliary body and iris

49

stimulation of cholinergic receptors cuases:
1. ______ of the ciliary muscle and iris sphincter that may _____ outflow resistance
2. _______, which reduces IOP
3. _______ in aqueous humor formation

1. contraction, reduce
2. pilocarpine (parasympathomimetic)
3. no significant role

50

aqueous humor is mainly made of...(3 thigns)

1. electrolytes
2. low molecular weight compounds
3. some protein (very low-200x less than blood)

51

theres also a shit ton more shit in the aqueous.....
- ___ hormones
-_______ (carbonic anhydrase, lysozyme, cytokines)
-_______ (norepinephrine, dopamine)
-prosta....
-_____ acid (from GAG renewal in vitreous or ant segment

-sex
-enzymes
-catecholamines
-prostaglandins
-hyaluronic

52

why is the content different in plasma and aqueous?

bc of the tight junctions btwn non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells that form a bloood/aqueous barrier

53

where are the source of metabolites in aqueous humor

ciliary processes (main)
and also corneal endothelium, lens, and iris

54

iris structure contains...
1. ____ limiting layer
2.
3. _____ epithelium
4. _______ epithelium

1. anterior
2. stroma
3. dilator epithelium
4. pigment ep

55

what has the largest mass of smooth muscle (longitudinal fibers, radial fibers, circular fibers

ciliary muscle

56

contraction of the ciliary muscle leads to...

accommodation

57

the ciliary muscle attaches to _______, adjacent _______ tissue, or _______ sheets

scleral spur, cxt, corneal scleral

58

iris function
1. _____ control
2. ______ control for focus
3. _____reduction

illumination
aperture
aberratoin

59

a meshwork of collagen fibers w/ many crypts and holes and is therefore very permeable

anterior limiting layer

60

the 3 ciliary muscles are

sphincter
dilator epithelium
radial contraction folds

61

what muscle has parasympathetic innervation w/ completely differentiated cells and it just smooth muscle

sphincter

62

what ciliary muscle does sympathetic innervation w/ only cells derived from neuroectoderm. incompletley differentiated. basal ends of these cells form the muscle process

dilator epithelium

63

what ciliary muscle gets deeper as the pupil gets smaller

radial contraction folds

64

what ciliary muscle gets deeper as the pupil gets wider

circular contraction folds

65

all the ciliary muscles secure very firmly to the epithelial layer at the....

pupillary margin

66

when the eyes are blue there is no....

melanin

67

what innervate the sphicter muscle? via what?

post ganglionic parasympathetic fibers from CN3 via short ciliary nerves
-constriction hell yeah

68

what innervates the dilator muscle of the iris? via what?

sympathetic fibers via long ciliary nerves
-dilation bitches

69

choroid function:
1.
2. ____ product removal
3. passage of _____ and _____
4. _____ of stray light
5.

1. nutrition
2. waste
3. nerves and vessels
4. absorption
5. emmetropization

70

the suprachoroid:
1. lines the ____ and is very thin
2. ______ contain pigment granules

1. sclera
2. melanocytes

71

in hyperopic defocus there is a ___ choroid and ______ growth

thin, increased

72

in myopic defocs, there is a ____ chroid and ____ growth

thick, decreased

73

in the vascular layer of the choroid
1. among the _____ capillaries in the body
2. _____ permeable
3. blood vessels maintain ________ pressure to resist IOP

1. largest
2. highly
3. high

74

what are the 3 parts of the anatomy of the choriod

1. suprachoroid
2. vascular layer
3. bruch's membrane

75

blood supply to the choroid
1. long posterior ciliary-how many?
2. short post ciliary-how many?
3. choriocapillaries
4. ant ciliary arteries-how many?
5. how many vortex veins?

1. 2
2. 8-20

4. 7
5. 4

76

long and short ciliary nerves travel ______ and supply the ________.
-they also carry _____ nerve supply

anteriorly, choroidal vasculature
-sympathetic

77

the short ciliary nerves also carry the ______ nerve supply from CN 3

parasympathetic

78

parasympathetic innervation of the choroid is from the .....

pterygopalatine ganglion

79

the post-ganglionic fibers are predominantly _____

cholinergic

80

sympathetic innervation arises from the....

superior cervical ganglion

81

innervation of the ______ restricts the blood flow in the choroid

sympathetic

82

what innervation increases blood flow in the choroid

parasympathetic

83

stimulation of sensory fibers from the trigeminal nerve elicits _____

vasodilation

84

from the nutritional standpoint, the retinal circulation only supplies the ...

inner half of the retina

85

the choroid supplies the necessary metabolites to the....

posterior half of the retina

86

-large choroidal blood vessels fill the .......
-progressively smaller vessels are closer to the ______ forming the choriocapillaris

-choroidal layer
-retina

87

what decreases retinal illumination, reduces aberrations, and increases depth of focus

pupil constiction

88

eye accommodates
iris constricts
outflow increases

what contracts to allow these things to happen

ciliary muscle

89

what does the unpigmented layer of the ciliary epithelium make?

aqueous humor

90

where does the aqueous humor drain into
-from there, where can it drain into the venous system? (2 things)
-and then eventually it leaves the eye via....

trabecular meshwork
-schlemm's canal via vacuoles or through the uveoscleral outflow
-VORTEXVEINSMEOW

91

chicks are weird, the choroid will adjust to its thickness to partially compensate for the defocus.

-if the img is focused in front of the retina the chroid layer willl......
-if the img is focused behind the photoreceptors then the choroid layer...

thickens to bring the retina closer to the focal plane
-thins, again brining the img closwer to the focal plane