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Flashcards in Technique Deck (46)
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1

What three types of problems are caused by maloccluded teeth?

1-Psychosocial
2-Oral function (Speech, chewing etc)
3-Susceptibility to trauma, periodontal disease and tooth decay

2

Patients who are grossly disfigured cope social better or worse than those with a more minor disfigurement?

Better

*learn to expect a response and it is more consistent

3

What are the two types of occlusion?

1-Physiologic occlusion (not ideal class I)
2-Pathologic occlusion (destruction)

4

Orthodontics can sometimes help patients with _____ but cannot be relied on to correct these problems

TMD

5

What are the 4 main groups of TMD problems?

1-Masticatory muscle disorder
2-TM joint disorder
3-Chronic mandibular hypomobility
4-Growth disorders

6

What are three main degenerative joint conditions that contribute to TMD?

1-Arthritic involvement
2-Disk displacement
3-Myofascial pain

7

Splint therapy can identify if what is the possible cause of the TMD?

Malocclusion

8

1 in 3 untreated Class II malocclusion children with experience what to their upper incisors?

Trauma

*lower incisor contact with palate can cause lingual bone loss

9

The scissor effect caused by crowding results in what?

Bone loss and periodontal issues

10

The first stage of permanent tooth eruption begins at age 6, what happens?

mandibular incisors erupt along with mand and max first molars

11

Age 8 is characterized by what?

Maxillary lateral incisors

12

Age 11 is characterized by what?

Mandibular canines, mand 1st premolars and max 1st premolars

13

Age 12 is characterized by what?

Remaning succedaneous teeth erupt (max canine, 2nd premolar and mand premolar) with 2nd molars

14

Age 15 is characterized by what?

Roots of all permanent teeth except 3rd molars are complete

15

Eruption of the tooth until it emerges is called?

Pre-emergent eruption

16

Eruption after the tooth has emerged is called?

Post-emergent eruption

*Juvenile and Adult

17

What two processes are necessary for pre-emergent tooth eruption?

1-Resorption of bone and primary tooth roots
2-Propulsive mechanism to move the tooth into occlusion

18

What eruptive defect is found in patients with cleidocranial dysplasia?

The ability to remove overlying structures

19

What is the rate limiting factor in premergent eruption?

Resorption of overlying bone

20

What condition is usually asymmetrical and in which non-ankylosed teeth become anklyosed when orthodontic forces are applied?

Primary failure of eruption

21

What time frame of the day is the critical period of eruption?

8 PM- 1 AM

*likely related to growth hormone cycles

22

Soft tissue pressures are probably _____ than heavy pressures of occlusion in controlling eruption

More important

*light pressures of long duration are more important

23

Teeth that are in function erupt at a rate ______ to the rate of vertical growth of the mandibular ramus

Parallels

24

The total eruption path of a first permanent molar is about how long?

2.5 cm

25

What are 3 treatment options for ankylosed teeth?

1-Extraction
2-Crowns
3-Surgery

26

When is extraction of an ankylosed primary tooth recommended?

When it is below the height of contour of the adjacent teeth

27

What may result if eruption cannot fully compensate for wear?

Vertical dimension of the face will decrease

28

What is the result if the periodontal ligament is destroyed?

Ankylosis

*PDL is normally 0.5 mm

29

What role does fluid play in the PDL?

it acts as a shock absorber and is rapidly expressed when pressure is maintained, allowing the PDL to be compressed against adjacent bone

30

Tongue pressure is ____ than lip pressure on the mandibular incisors and _____ than the lip pressure on the maxillary incisors

Greater,
Less

31

What is the Threshold for orthodontic force?

5-10 grams/square cm

32

What appliance harnesses natural forces of the muscles surround lower teeth to broaden the dental arch?

Lip bumper

33

What phenomena is a result of heavy load quickly displacing the tooth and bending the bone?

Piezoelectric current

*seems to stimulate regeneration and repair

34

What happens to piezoelectric currents when the force is released?

The crystal returns to its original shape and the reverse flow of electrons is seen

35

Ions in the fluids that bathe living bone interact with piezoelectic currents causing what?

volts and temperature changes

*called streaming potential

36

Compression of the PDL limits blood flow resulting in the release of what?

Prostaglandins and interleukins which result in increased cAMP

37

Too much pressure totally occludes blood vessels resulting in what?

sterile necrosis of PDL

*referred to as hyalinized

38

After a few days of hyalinization, osteoclasts in adjacent marrow spaces do what?

Attack underside of the lamina dura. called Undermining resorption

39

Frontal resorption takes place on the compression side of the tooth, what takes place on the tension side?

Bone formation

40

A steady attack on the outer surface of lamina dura resulting in smooth continuous tooth movement is called what?

Frontal resorption

41

A delay until the bone adjacent to the tooth can be removed resulting in jumping to new positions is called?

Undermining resorption

*this is the rate limiting step of tooth movement

42

Most dental trauma occurs in what age range?

7-10 yrs old. TO the anterior incisor region

43

What should be done with primary vs permanent avulsed teeth?

Primary- not be replanted
Permanent- require follow up over 2-3 years

44

If the tooth has been out of the mouth less than 1 hour, what should you do?

Replant immediately

45

If the tooth has been out of the mouth for more than an hour what should you do?

-Soak in accepted dental fluoride for 20 minutes, rinse in saline and replant.
-Manage the socket and soft tissues

46

What is indicated in most cases of dental trauma to stabilize teeth?

Splinting for 7-10 days

*2-8 weeks if bony fractures are present