Flashcards in Tectonic Hazard Management Deck (40)
What is prediction?
Knowing when + where a natural hazard will strike on a spatial + temporal scale, that can be acted on, meaning in terms of evacuation
What is forecasting?
Much less precise and provides a "percentage chance" of a hazard occurring
Why is it impossible to modify loss ofearthquakes?
Rapid speed of onset
BUT can modify the impact on people
Can you predict earthquakes?
Why can't you predict earthquakes?
Random spatial predictability, large areal extent + rapid speed of onset
Even though you can't predict earthquakes, what else can you do?
Areas of high risk = risk forecasting
"Seismic gap" areas = not experienced an earthquake in a while = high risk
Can you predict volcanic eruptions?
How can you predict volcanic eruptions?
Monitoring equipment can measure changes in magma chamber
Tiltmeters record "bulges" as magma rises
Seismometers record minor earthquakes = magma movement
Gas spectrometer analyse gas emissions, which show increased likelihood of eruptions
Can you predict tsunami?
Which type of tsunami cannot be predicted?
How can you predict a tsunami?
Ocean monitoring equipment such as DART can detect changes in wave sizes
Info then relayed back to coastline
What are the two main categories of hazard management?
What is mitigation?
Actions + interventions taken to reduce vulnerability
What is adaption?
Actions taken to adjusr to living with tectonic hazards
What is the hazard management cycle?
Illustreates differnet stahes of managing hazards in an attempt to reduce the scale
What are the stages of the hazard management cycle?
What is the response stage in the hazard management cycle?
In form of rescue + aid
To keep people alive
What is the rehabilitation (recovery) stage in the hazard management cycle?
Rehabilitating injured people + their lives
What is the mitigationstage in the hazard management cycle?
Acting to reduce the scale of the next disaster
Hazard - resistant infrastructure
What is the preparedness stage in the hazard management cycle?
How to act before, during + after
What does the recovery stage depend on?
Magnitude of disaster
What can the recovery stage also be known as?
"Returning back to normal" stage
This can happen in a few months but take years for another country
How can the hazard be managed?
What is modifying the event?
Changing the tectonic event by reducing its areal extent + effective magnitude
What is modifying vulnerability?
Plan strategies to make the area/population more resilient
What is modifying the loss?
Reducing short + long term losses by acting to aid recovery + reconstruction
What are examples of modifying the event strategies?
What are the advantages + disadvantages of lava diversions?
Reduce harm - A
Cheap - A
Only work for low VEI basaltic lava - D
What are advantages + disadvantages of tsunami walls?
Dramatically reduce damage - A
Provide sense of security - A
Can use mangrove trees - A
Can be expensive - D
Restrict economic growth - D
Can be overtopped - D