Tectonic Hazard Management Flashcards Preview

A-Level Geography > Tectonic Hazard Management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tectonic Hazard Management Deck (40)
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1

What is prediction?

Knowing when + where a natural hazard will strike on a spatial + temporal scale, that can be acted on, meaning in terms of evacuation

2

What is forecasting?

Much less precise and provides a "percentage chance" of a hazard occurring

3

Why is it impossible to modify loss ofearthquakes?

Rapid speed of onset
BUT can modify the impact on people

4

Can you predict earthquakes?

NO

5

Why can't you predict earthquakes?

Random spatial predictability, large areal extent + rapid speed of onset

6

Even though you can't predict earthquakes, what else can you do?

Areas of high risk = risk forecasting
"Seismic gap" areas = not experienced an earthquake in a while = high risk

7

Can you predict volcanic eruptions?

YES

8

How can you predict volcanic eruptions?

Monitoring equipment can measure changes in magma chamber
Tiltmeters record "bulges" as magma rises
Seismometers record minor earthquakes = magma movement
Gas spectrometer analyse gas emissions, which show increased likelihood of eruptions

9

Can you predict tsunami?

PARTLY

10

Which type of tsunami cannot be predicted?

Earthquake-induced tsunami

11

How can you predict a tsunami?

Ocean monitoring equipment such as DART can detect changes in wave sizes
Info then relayed back to coastline

12

What are the two main categories of hazard management?

Mitigation
Adaptation

13

What is mitigation?

Actions + interventions taken to reduce vulnerability

14

What is adaption?

Actions taken to adjusr to living with tectonic hazards

15

What is the hazard management cycle?

Illustreates differnet stahes of managing hazards in an attempt to reduce the scale

16

What are the stages of the hazard management cycle?

Response
Rehabilitation (recovery)
Mitigation
Preparedness

17

What is the response stage in the hazard management cycle?

Immediate help
In form of rescue + aid
To keep people alive

18

What is the rehabilitation (recovery) stage in the hazard management cycle?

Rebuilding infrastructure
Rehabilitating injured people + their lives

19

What is the mitigationstage in the hazard management cycle?

Acting to reduce the scale of the next disaster
Land-use zoning
Hazard - resistant infrastructure

20

What is the preparedness stage in the hazard management cycle?

Evacuation systems
Community education
How to act before, during + after
Prediction technology

21

What does the recovery stage depend on?

Magnitude of disaster
Dvelopment level
Governance
External help

22

What can the recovery stage also be known as?

"Returning back to normal" stage
This can happen in a few months but take years for another country

23

How can the hazard be managed?

Modify event
Modify vulnerability
Modify loss

24

What is modifying the event?

Changing the tectonic event by reducing its areal extent + effective magnitude

25

What is modifying vulnerability?

Plan strategies to make the area/population more resilient

26

What is modifying the loss?

Reducing short + long term losses by acting to aid recovery + reconstruction

27

What are examples of modifying the event strategies?

Lava diversions
Tsunami walls

28

What are the advantages + disadvantages of lava diversions?

Cheap
Reduce harm - A
Cheap - A
Overtopped -D
Only work for low VEI basaltic lava - D

29

What are advantages + disadvantages of tsunami walls?

Dramatically reduce damage - A
Provide sense of security - A
Can use mangrove trees - A
Can be expensive - D
Restrict economic growth - D
Can be overtopped - D

30

What are examples of modifying vulnerability strategies?

Land - use zoning
Aseismic building