Explain how lines are produced in an emission spectra

Each line results from a transition between definite energy levels. Excited electrons can fall down to lower energy level releasing a photon of light

Combined equation E =

E = LHC/ λ

Pauli's Exclusion Principle

If a box contains two electrons one must be pointing up and the other pointing down

State the definition of a ligand

Ligands are negative ions or unchanged molecules with one or more non-bonding pairs of electrons

An example of a monodentate ligand

Cl-

An example of a bidentate ligand

Oxalato

What is the definition of a buffer?

A buffer solution is one in which the pH remains approximately constant when small amounts of acid or base or water are added.

The formula to calculate ∆S is

∆S = ΣS(products) - ΣS(reactants)

The formula to calculate ∆G is

∆G=∆H - T∆S

Give the equation to calculate ∆H

∆H=Σ∆H(products) - Σ∆H(reactants)

First order means reaction rate

doubles

Second order means reaction rate

quadruples

K refers to the?

Rate constant

a not A refers to the what?

order of the reaction