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Flashcards in Ten Commandments Deck (43)
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1

What is the structure of the exam?

2 hours long- from 9:00am until 11:00am.
1st half = three gobbets of 20 minutes each
2nd half = an essay

2

Which word is used for a ‘top down’ approach in law?

Substantive.

3

What does ‘functional’ mean in a legal context?

‘Bottom up’
A more informal approach arising from practise and precedent.
Eg: children playing tig.

4

What is arguably the most significant date in ancient Israel’s history?

587/586 BC, the year King Nebuchadnezzar returns to quash the second uprising and Jerusalem is razed to the ground.

5

Which scholar argued that the rhetorical techniques used in the ‘law’ sections of the old restatement mean that it is not a separate category to the ‘narrative’ and that the two are inseparable?

J.W Watts

6

Give an opposing view to that of J.W. Watts.

Thomas Aquinas attempted to categorise Old Testament law into 3 areas:
1. Moral law
2. Judicial law
3. Ceremonial law

7

What two divisions did Albrecht Alt apply to Old Testament law?

CASUISTIC: “If you do x then y will happen...” Thought to come from OUTSIDE Israel and be the first written down. Less focus on God, unless in context of “acts of God”

APODEICTIC: “thou shall not...” Thought to come WITHIN Israel and be written secondarily. God is first person speaker.

8

Name a critic of Albrecht Alt.

Patrick Dale who argued Alt’s division between casuistic law originating from outside Israel and apodeictic law originating from within Israel is overly simplistic

9

Around what time did the written version of the Hebrew Bible begin to take shape?

Post-Babylonian exile in 587/586 BC.

10

Name the first seven books of the Old Testament.

1. Genesis
2. Exodus
3. Leviticus
4. Numbers
5. Deuteronomy
6. Joshua
7. Judges

A mnemonic for remembering this is “Greedy elephants like Nutella, despite jam and jelly.”

11

Use a scholar to explain a difference in a Jewish and Christian interpretations of the law.

Bradford A. Anderson has written of the differences between how Jews and Christians see the law. Christians tend to see the law as punitive and restrictive, whereas the Hebrew word ‘torah’ means ‘teaching and instruction’ and “is seen as life enhancing rather than something that is limiting”.

12

What is another name for the Ten Commandments?

The Decalogue

13

Which of the Old Testament law traditions came first?

The Covenant Code: of which the casuistic laws came first and the apodeictic laws came second.

14

What has Raymond Westbrook said about wether law in the Ancient Near East was actually enforced?

He has posited that ancient Near Eastern law was based more on custom than codified texts which primarily functioned as royal propaganda/ material for scribes to copy when learning to read and write.

15

Are the 10 commandments ‘timeless moral instruction’?

Arguably yes, they are absolutist BUT consider the ongoing debate in America about hanging them in public spaces like schools and courtrooms and also the view of David J.A. Clines who questioned “in whose interests” the 10 commandments were and argued they mostly serve those with property- meaning they are relativist to the particular society of Ancient Israel.

16

What metaphor did Bradford A Anderson use to describe the relationship between the narrative of the Exodus and the law given at Sinai?

They are “two sides of the same covenantal coin”

17

What is the difference between relativist and absolutist?

Relativist = applicable to a specific time and place.

Absolutist = universally applicable.

18

What does the name ‘moses’ mean?

It’s Egyptian for ‘son of X’.

19

Did the tabernacle actually exist?

Scholarly consensus is that it didn’t. Julius Wellhausen, for instance.

20

What OTHER purpose did the ritual purity laws in Leviticus serve?

“Whatever their historical origins, the rituals portrayed in Leviticus legitimised the authority of those performing the rituals.”- Bradford A Anderson.

21

Give an example of the laws from Leviticus being used in a modern context.

Jubilee 2000- Debt relief towards developing nations echoing the idea of the jubilee in Leviticus.

22

What does Moses judge in the book of numbers?

He is called to adjudicate in certain scenarios- although wether they were actually real life legal dilemmas or a literary creation is up for debate.

23

How is the book of Deuteronomy structured?

Narrative > Law > Narrative

24

Who instituted the reforms in Deuteronomy?

King Josiah

25

What is the difference between henotheism and monotheism?

Monotheism is the belief that only one god exists, whereas henotheism allows for the existence of many gods but requires that only one is worshipped.

26

Was Moses a real historical figure?

There is no evidence of Moses in contemporary Egyptian records.
The story of his birth echoes other myths of the ancient near east like Sargon of Akkad who was also born in secret and cast into a river in a basket made of reeds.

27

Describe the image on King Hammurabi’s Stone stela.

Christopher B Hayes interprets the image as Hammurabi being handed a sceptre by the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash symbolising the authority to rule and govern.

28

What is the Akkadian word for a person of high-ranking birth?

An awilu.

29

In Babylonia, an awilu’s life was worth the same as a slave’s life - true or false?

False. The laws of Hammaruabi state that “if an awilu should blind the eye of another awilu, they shall blind his eye”, whereas “if an awilu should blind the eye of a commoner [...] he shall weigh and deliver 60 shekels of silver.”

30

Identify 3 key features of the prologue to Hammaruabi’s laws.

1. It begins “I am Hammaruabi, the good shepherd.”
2. Hammaruabi justifies his authority by listing the pantheon of various Babylonian gods beginning with “when the god Marduk command me”.
3. The first of the list of casuistic laws is “if a man charges another man with homicide but cannot bring proof against him, his accuser shall be killed” demonstrating the importance of the truth and legitimate testimony in a society without a formal legal structure with police/judges/ prisons.