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Flashcards in Teratogens Deck (33):
0

What are characteristics of teratogens?

- fetus is most susceptible during organogenesis (weeks 3-10)

1

What are factors affecting teratogenecity?

Timing, dose (amount/frequency/duration), fetal and maternal metabolism, genetic susceptability

2

What teratogen is caused by thalidomide used as sleeping medication and anti-nausea during pregnancy in 1950's?

Thalidomide Teratogen

3

What teratogen has the following phenotype:
- phocomelia: limbs are extremely shortened so the hands and feet arise close to the trunk. Defects in the eyes, ears, heart, genitals, kidneys, digestive, tract, and nervous system

Thalidomide teratogen

4

What teratogen has the highest risk at 3-8 weeks of gestation?

Thalidomide Teratogen

5

What teratogen is caused by morning sickness medication containing an antihistamine, antispasmotic, and vitamin B6

Bendectin

6

What teratogen has the following phenotype:
- limb and other musculoskeletal deformities, facial and brain damage, defects of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and genital-urinary systems, blood disorders and cancer

Bendectin

7

What teratogen is caused by ACE inhibitors used for treatment of hypertension?

ACE Inhibitors Teratogen

8

What teratogen has the following phenotype:
- decreased renal blood flow (possibly reversible), skull hypoplasia, hypotension, anuria

ACE inhibitors teratogen

9

What teratogen has a morbidity rate of 10%-20%?

ACE inhibitors Teratogen

10

What teratogen is caused by lithium used for treatment of bipolar disorder?

Lithium Teratogen

11

What teratogen has the following phenotype:
- Ebstein's anomaly: tricuspid valve inferiorly displaced

Lithium teratogen

12

What teratogen is caused by the use of accutane a treatment of acne?

Isotretinoin (Accutane) Teratogen

13

What teratogen has the following phenotype:
- Neural crest defects: CNS, cardiac, ear, thymic, branchial arch anomalies, cerebellar hypoplasia

Isotretinoin (Accutane) Teratogen

14

What teratogen is caused by anti-convulsant medication?

Carbamazepine/phenytoin Teratogen

15

The following phenotype is characteristic of what teratogen:
- neural tube defects: risk is 1%-3% phenytoin causes nail hypoplasia?

Carbamazepine/phenytoin/valproic acidTeratogen

16

What teratogen is caused by a medication used for the treatment of multiple cancers, dermatomyositis, ectopic pregnancy, gestational trophoblastic neoplasm, malignant meningitis, mycosis fungoides, severe psoriasis, severe rheumatoid arthritis, wegener's granulomatosis

Methotrexate Teratogen

17

What teratogen has the following phenotype:
- multiple organ system/structure anomalies

Methotrexate Teratogen

18

What teratogen is usually taken during the 1st trimester. Shows dose response?

Methotrexate Teratogen

19

What teratogen is caused by chronic alcoholism (>6-8 drinks/day) during pregnancy: results in intracellular Ca2+ changes that alter signaling cascades. Gene targets: sonic hedgehog, Fgf-8, Pax6

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

20

What teratogen has a recurrence risk of 1/2,000?

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

21

What teratogen has the following phenotype:
- impaired somatic and brain growth, cognitive and executive function deficits, facial dysmorphology, microcephaly, learning disability, ADHD, impulsive, poor memory, conduct disorder, inwardly curved pinky finger, multiple ear folds

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

22

In what teratogen does 1st month exposure produce the most significant effect?

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

23

What teratogen is caused by paint sniffing and is similar to symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome?

Toluene

24

What recreational drug teratogen has the following phenotype:
- abruptio placenta, miscarriage, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, cognitive and behavioral differences, vasoconstriction leads to decreased placental blood flow , GI problems

Cocaine

25

What recreational drug teratogen has the following phenotype:
- smaller putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, clefting anomalies, cardiac and growth anomalies?

Methamphetamine

26

What recreational drug teratogen has remodeling of synaptic morphology in animals?

Methamphetamine

27

What recreational drug teratogen has an effect on higher executive function?

Marijuana

28

What recreational drug has no consistent link with birth abnormalities?

Marijuana

29

What recreational drug teratogen has the following phenotype:
- poor fetal growth, behavioral (hyperactivity) disorder, IQ deficit, some congenital anomalies?

Tobacco

30

What teratogen is due to exposure to shellfish containing methyl mercury compounds in Japan, mine waste in New Mexico

Methylmercury (Minamata disease)

31

What teratogen has the following phenotype:
- microcephaly, mental retardation, cerebral palsy

Methylmercury (Minamata disease)

32

What teratogen has the following phenotype:
- impaired CNS function

Lead Teratogen