What percentage of teratomas in children are malignant?
Are childhood teratomas more likely to be gonadal or extragonadal?
After puberty, are teratomas more likely to be gonadal or extragonadal?
Intersex disorders are a risk factor for what types of malignancy?
Gonadoblastoma, which can differentiate into dysgerminoma, immature teratoma, or choriocarcinoma.
Androgen-deficient males (testosterone deficiency, androgen-insensitivity, 5-alpha-reductase deficiency) are at risk for malignancy with the presence of ___.
Any portion of a Y chromosome.
What is the risk of malignancy in androgen insensitivity? When should gonadectomy be performed?
3.6% at age 20, 22% at age 30. Gonadectomy should be performed at adolescence.
What is the chemotherapy regimen for malignant germ cell tumors?
PEB (platinum/cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin)
Elevated AFP indicates ___
Yolk sac tumor
Embryology of Cuarrarino’s triad
Adhesions between endoderm and ectoderm cause a split notochord, resulting in:
If a presacral mass in a neonate has been left in place, by what age should the AFP levels have returned to normal?
How is Cuarrarino’s triad inherited?
Type I sacrococcygeal teratomas, frequency
Predominantly external, 46.7%
Type II sacrococcygeal teratomas, frequency
External with intrapelvic extension, 34.7%)
Type III sacrococcygeal teratomas, frequency
Visible external, but predominantly intrapelvic and abdominal, 8.8%