Term Test 3 Flashcards Preview

DH 110 Microbiology for the Dental Hygienist > Term Test 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Term Test 3 Deck (59)
Loading flashcards...
1

Describe free floating bacteria

-Planktonic bacteria
-Majority of research conducted with free floating bacteria

2

Describe attached bacteria

-Bacteria that attach to other surfaces and each other
-More than 99% on earth

3

How can biofilms be destroyed?

Biofilms can be destroyed by wiping them or disrupting their attachment to a surface

4

What is currently the most effective infection control method for biofilm?

Physical removal is currently the most effective infection control method

5

Types of bacterial plaque biofilms

-Supragingival: above gingival margin; plaque in direct contact with gingival margin; signicicant in gingivitis
-Subgingival: below gingival margin; associated with periodontitis.

6

Perio pathogens are _____ NOT ______!

transmissible, contagious

7

Bacterial load found in HEALTHY gingiva:

1000-10,000 (10^3-10^4)

8

Bacterial load found in GINGIVITIS gingiva:

10^4-10^6

9

Bacteria found in chronic gingivitis consists of

equal portions gram+ and gram-

10

Bacteria associated with periodontitis

Enormous biofilm load of gram- bacteria
Load as large as 100,000 – over a million organisms

11

Chronic periodontitis is associated with...

high numbers of gram- anaerobic rods

12

*More than ____ species have been isolated from perio pockets, but it is believed that only a small percentage are periodontal pathogens*

1000!

13

Primary pathogens (three main bacterial pathogens)

1.Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (AA): gram-, facultative anaerobic rod
2.Tennenella forsythus (bacteroides): gram-, anaerobic rod
3.Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG): gram-, anaerobic short rod

14

Secondary pathogens (7 but only need to know these three…)

1.Fusobacterium nucleatum: gram- anaerobic rod
2.Prevotella intermedia: gram- anaerobic rod
3.Treponema denticolla: gram- anaerobic spirochete

15

_____, ______, and _______ are all proven invaders of the host tissue cells.

AA, porhphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticolla.

16

Factors that influence caries production in the oral cavity

1.Cariogenic bacteria
2.Substrate for acid production
3.Susceptible host (a person with teeth)
4.Interval (in which sugar is consumed) – most important!

17

Normal mouth pH is ___ and falls to ____ when snacking (sugar is consumed)

7, 3.5

18

________ remains the main substrate for cariogenic bacteria.

Sucrose

19

Cariogenic bacteria (two types)...

1.Acidogenic: produce acid
2.Aciduric: only tolerates acidic environment. Acid must be produced along with a low pH for a long period of time.

20

Streptococci

-Most common
-Require hard surfaces to attach
-The higher sucrose in a diet, the more proliferant the S. mutans

21

Lactobacilli

Plays an important role in caries progression

22

HOST-ORAL BACTERIA RELATIONSHIP
The host is...

The person, the oral cavity, or the tooth and its surrounding structures.

23

In healthy people, the bacteria or _________ live in a ________ relationship with the host.

microorganisms, harmonious

24

When the host is compromised by ______, ______, _______, etc., the bacteria become ______.

disease, trauma, diet changes.

pathogenic.

25

Why might a female develop a vaginal infection?

Due to stress, diet changes, or trauma.

26

How many species of bacteria can be found in the human mouth?

1000. (34-72 most people have).

27

NON-SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (NSPH)
Is this an old or a new theory?

Old.

28

NON-SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (NSPH)
According to this theory, how many types of plaque are there?

One.

29

NON-SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (NSPH)
The NSPH is based on having a ________ mouth. Is this possible in
humans? _____! Plaque develops in retentive areas and if plaque accumulates, ___________ will occur.

germ-free, NO!,
caries or PD disease

30

NON-SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (NSPH)
According to the NSPH does it matter that there are _____ species of bacteria in the human mouth? ___. Why?

1000
No
We should mechanically remove it.

31

CONTROLLING DISEASE ACCORDING TO THE NON-SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (NSPH)
Based on this theory, how do you control the development of caries and periodontal
disease?

Reduction of bacterial mass (through mechanical debridement) scaling polishing brushing flossing.

32

CONTROLLING DISEASE ACCORDING TO THE NON-SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (NSPH)
Johnny is your client, and you are seeing him for a recall appointment. He has four new caries and the same type of build-up of a lot of interproximal plaque as his last appointment. According to the Non-specific Plaque Hypothesis, why does Johnny have four new caries?

Because of the accumulation of plaque, therefore creating acids and toxins, he is not brushing and flossing regularly.

33

CONTROLLING DISEASE ACCORDING TO THE NON-SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (NSPH)
What would you tell Johnny to do in order to prevent further caries?

Why would you tell him this?

Brush and floss.

To remove plaque accumulation which causes caries.

34

SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (SPH)
Is the bacteria the same in a healthy mouth and a diseased mouth?

No.

35

SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (SPH)
Therefore, there are more than ___ types of plaque.

1

36

SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (SPH)
The Specific Plaque Hypothesis states that there are ___ types of plaque.

3

37

SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (SPH)
The types of plaque are:

1.Non-disease associated plaque (biofilm)
2.Caries-associated plaque
3.Periodontal disease-associated plaque

38

SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (SPH)
How many species of bacteria can be found in the human mouth?

1000.!

39

SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (SPH)
Do all people have all these species?

What do they know now?

no

Bacterial composition varies site to site.

40

SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS (SPH)
How does this information relate to the Specific Plaque Hypothesis?

Different bacteria leads to different problems.

41

NON-DISEASE ASSOCIATED PLAQUE
This plaque is present in _____ mouth. This type of plaque is associated with a _____ prevalence of ______ and _________ over a period of years if the person ________ removes the plaque regularly and doesn’t have ______ happen that will upset the _____ relationship.

everyones

low

caries

minimal periodontal bone loss

mechcanically

anything

harmonious

42

NON-DISEASE ASSOCIATED PLAQUE
Some ways in which the balance can be upset are:

Exposure to pathogenic microorganisms, Diet changes, eating disorders, stress, illness, Diabetes, Pregnancy, Xerostomia, Drugs.

43

CARIES ASSOCIATED PLAQUE

What will cause non-disease associated plaque to become caries associated plaque?

The balance of host and bacteria is now _______.

Frequently ingesting surcrose (ecpessily is the sticky form).

compromised.

44

PERIODONTALLY ASSOCIATED PLAQUE
What will cause non-disease associated plaque to become periodontally-associated plaque?

The balance of host and bacteria is now _______.

Stress.

Compromised.

45

CONTROLLING DISEASE ACCORDING TO THE SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS
Research has confirmed that plaque from healthy sites and diseased sites is _______________.

Biochemically and biologically different.

46

CONTROLLING DISEASE ACCORDING TO THE SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS
List some ways you would try to control caries or periodontal disease based on the Specific Plaque Hypothesis:

Drugs, rinses, fluoride, restrict sugars, pit and fissure sealants, periodontal surgery.

47

CONTROLLING DISEASE ACCORDING TO THE SPECIFIC PLAQUE HYPOTHESIS
Based on this theory, how do you control the development of caries and periodontal disease?:

A specific pathogen must be iraddicated or destroyed.

48

What agent is used for standard general prophylaxis?

Amoxicillin or Cephalexin

49

If a patient requires prophylaxis prior to dental treatment, how much Amoxicillin or Cephalexin should a client take prior to dental treatment?

2.0 g orally

50

If a patient requires prophylaxis prior to dental treatment, how long prior to dental treatment should Amoxicillin or Cephalexin be taken?

30-60 minutes prior to procedure

51

If the client has a penicillin allergy, what agent would you prescribe them?

Clindamycin

52

If a patient requires prophylaxis prior to dental treatment, how much Clindamycin should a client take prior to dental treatment?

600 mg orally

IF CLIENT IS UNABLE TO TAKE ORAL PILLS THEN THEY CAN DO THE SAME AMOUNT ADMINISTERED WITH IV 30-60 MINUTES PRIOR TO DENTAL TREATMENT.

53

If a patient requires prophylaxis prior to dental treatment, how long prior to dental treatment should Clindamycin be taken?

30-60 minutes

54

If patient is unable to take oral medications and DOES NOT have a penicillin allergy what antibiotic should they take?

Ampicillin
or
Cefazolin

55

If a patient requires prophylaxis prior to dental treatment, how much Ampicillin should a client take prior to dental treatment?

2.0 g IM or IV

56

If a patient requires prophylaxis prior to dental treatment, how long prior to dental treatment should Ampicillin be taken?

30-60 minutes

57

If a patient requires prophylaxis prior to dental treatment, how much Cefazolin should a client take prior to dental treatment?

1.0 g IM or IV

58

If a patient requires prophylaxis prior to dental treatment, how long prior to dental treatment should Cefazolin be taken?

30-60 minutes

59

What procedures require antibiotics prior to treatment?

Any procedures that might induce bleeding.