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1

What is Microbiology

The study of microbes.

2

Why is microbiology important?

Essential for life on this planet

3

Who is the “father of microbiology”?

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

4

What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek invent?

Invented the single lens (simple) microscope.

5

What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek discover with his invention?

• Animalcules
° (bacteria, protozoa)

6

Describe the germ theory of disease

The theory that states: specific microbes cause specific diseases.

7

Describe the cell theory of disease

Disease arises from micro-organisms within the cells of the body

8

R. Koch developed criteria that supported this conclusion called Koch’s Postulates. List them below:

1. A particular microorganism must be found in all cases of the disease, and not in healthy animals or humans.

2. The microorganism must be isolated and cultured in the laboratory.

3. The same disease must be produced by microorganisms from the pure culture.

4. The same microorganism must be recovered from the experimentally infected animals and grown again in pure culture.

9

________ became the first person to identify that specific organism’s cause specific disease.

R. Koch

10

It is important to be aware that microorganisms cause ALL infectious diseases. List below the exceptions to Koch’s postulates:

1. Certain pathogens will not grow in the laboratory (viruses)

2. Many pathogens are species specific; limited testing on humans
3. Some diseases are caused by the combined efforts of two or more microorganisms (synergistic infection) examples include trench mouth and bacterial vaginosis

4. Certain pathogens are altered when grown in vitro (in glass)

11

List and briefly describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure:

• Eukaryote cells have a true nucleus, prokaryotes do not. 

• Eukaryotes are divided into plant and animal types. 

• Eukaryotic cells contain membranous structures and membrane bound organelles; Prokaryotic cells possess no membrane bound organelles other than the cell membrane that encloses the cytoplasm. 

• Prokaryotes replicate using binary fission while eukaryotes produce using mitosis.

12

What is Taxonomy

Taxonomy is the systematic classification of living things.

13

The sequence of taxa: (acronym)

King David Came Over For Good Spaghetti

14

What is the sequence of taxa

Kingdom
Divison
Class
Order
File
Genus
Species

15

Microbial classification:

First name=
Second name=

First + second=

genus

specific epithet

constitute species

16

List the 5-kingdom system of classification:

• Bacteria and Archaea: Kingdom Prokaryote


• Algae and Protozoa: Kingdom Protista 


• Fungi: Kingdom Fungi


• Plants: Kingdom Plantae 


Animals: Kingdom Animalia (Animals other than humans)

17

List the 3-kingdom system of classification:

Archaea (prokaryotic)

Bacteria (prokaryotic)

Eucarya (all eukaryotic organisms)

18

List the 5 specific properties of Viruses:

a. They have either DNA or RNA (living cells possess both)

b. They are unable to replicate on their own

c. Unlike cells, they do not divide by binary fission, mitosis, or meiosis

d. They lack the genes and enzymes necessary for energy production

e. They depend on the ribosomes, enzymes, and metabolites of the host cell for protein and nucleic acid

19

3 Cell Shapes of Bacteria

i) Cocci (round bacteria)
ii) Bacilli (rod shaped)
iii) Curved and spiral-shaped bacteria

20

Staining

• Divides bacteria into two main groups:
° Gram positive: blue and purple
° Gram negative: pink and red
• This final reaction is dependent on the organisms cell wall structure.

21

Bacteria Atmospheric Requirements

i)Obligate aerobes
ii)Microaerophilic aerobes
iii)Facultative anaerobes
iv)Aerotolerant aerobes
v)Obligate anaerobes

22

Rickettsias –

• Bacteria, but do not have all attributes of bacteria cells.
° Have a gram negative cell wall.
° Are obligate intracellular pathogens
Have “leaky” membranes

23

Chlamydias – 


• Bacteria, but do not have all attributes of bacteria cells.
° Have a gram negative cell wall.
° Are obligate intracellular pathogens
° Are energy “parasites” meaning that they prefer to use ATP molecules produced by their host cell.

24

Mycoplasmas –

• Bacteria, but do not have all attributes of bacteria cells.
° Smallest of cellular microbes
° Lack a cell wall and therefore may assume many shapes (pleomorphic)
° In humans, cause primary atypical pneumonia and genitourinary infections
° Resistant to drugs like penicillin that attack cell walls
° Produce tiny “fried egg” colonies on artificial media.

25

What is an arthropod? Give examples.

An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

Insect, spider, crustaceans

26

What is a vector?

• Invertebrae animals capable of spreading pathogens among vertebrates.
° Ticks, mites, mosquitos, fleas

27

fine sporulation:

• Production of spores

28

List 6 characteristics of Protozoa:


1. Non-photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms.

2. Most are unicellular, free living, and found in soil and water.

3. Do not have cell walls, but some have a thickened cell membrane called a “pellicle” which serves the same purpose (protection)

1. Typical life cycle has two stages:
° A trophozoite: the motile, feeding, dividing stage.
° A cyst: nonmotile, dormant, surviving stage.

2. Some protozoa are parasites


3. Sometimes divided into groups based on their method of locomotion

29

What is meant by a symbiotic relationship?

A relationship in which both species benefit.

30

List at least 4 characteristics of Fungi:

1. It is found virtually everywhere

2. Some are harmful, some are beneficial

3. Represent a diverse group of eukaryoic organisms that include yeasts, moulds, and fleshy fungi.

4. “garbage disposers” of nature

5. Not plants, not photosynthetic.

31

List bacterial diseases and the bacteria that causes the disease:

...

32

List characteristics of Algae:

• Photosynthetic, eukaryotic organisms

• All algae cells have a cytoplasm, cell wall (usually), a cell membrane, nucleus, plastids, ribosomes, mitochondria and Golgi bodies. 

• Range in size from unicellular organisms to large multicellular organisms. 

• Algae produce energy by photosynthesis.

33

Pathogens

Disease causing microorganism.

34

Non-pathogen

A microbe that does not cause disease.

35

Indigenous microflora

Microbes that live on and in a healthy body. (Human Microbiome).

36

Opportunistic pathogens

A microbe with the potential to cause disease but does not do so under ordinary circumstances.

37

Saprophytes

An organism that lives on dead or decaying matter.

38

Infectious disease

Any disease caused by a microbe that follows colonization of the body by the microbe.

39

Microbial intoxication

A disease that results from ingestion of a toxin that was produced by a pathogen in vitro (outside the body)

40

Obligate intracellular pathogen

A pathogen that must reside within another living cell.

41

Abiogenesis

The theory that life can arise from non-living matter; AKA spontaneous generation.

42

Biogenesis

The theory that life generates only from pre-existing life and never from nonliving matter.

43

Capsid

The external protein coat or covering of a virion.

44

Capsomere

The individual protein subunits that make up the capsid of some virions.

45

Bacteriophage

A virus that infects a bacterium.

46

Thermophiles

An organism that thrives at a temperature of 50 C or higher.

47

Mesophiles

A microorganism having an optimum growth temperature between 25 C and 30 C

48

Psychrophiles

An organism that grows best at low temperature with optimum growth occurring at 10 C to 20 C

49

Barophiles

An organism that needs a high pressure environment in order to grow (bottom of sea, ocean floors, deep lakes where pressure can exceed 380 atm.

50

Viroids

Infectious RNA molecules.

51

Prions

Infectious protein molecules.