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Flashcards in Terminology Deck (149)
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1

Gross anatomy

Study of large visible structures.

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Anatomical position

Hands at side and palms forward.

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Abdominal

Abdomen.

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Antebrachial

Forearm.

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Antecubital

Front of elbow.

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Axillary

Armpit.

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Brachial

Arm

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Buccal

Cheek

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Carpal

Wrist

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Cervical

Neck

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Coxal

Hip

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Crucal

Leg

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Deltoid

A muscle located on the outer aspect of the shoulder.

14

Digital

Fingers

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Femoral

Thigh

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Frontal

Forehead

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Hall us

Great toe(big toe).

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Inguinal

Groin

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Mammary

Breast

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Mental

Chin

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Nasal

Nose

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Oral

Mouth

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Orbital

Eye

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Palmar

Palm

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Patellar

Kneecap

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Pedal

Foot

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Pelvic

Pelvis

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Peroneal(fibular)

Lateral side of the leg

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Pollex

Thumb

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Pubic

Pubis

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Eternal

Sterling

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Tarsal

Ankle

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Thoracic

Chest

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Umbilical

Navel

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Acromial

Shoulder

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Calcaneal

Heel of foot

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Cephalic

Head

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Dorsum

Pertaining to the back

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Gluteal

Buttock

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Lumbar

Lower back

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Manus

Hand

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Occipital

Back of the head

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Olecranal

Back of the elbow

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Otic

Ear

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Perineal

Region between the anus and external genitalia.

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Plantar

Sole of foot.

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Popliteal

Back of knee

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Sacral

Posterior region between the hips.

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Scapular

Shoulder blade area(shoulder bone).

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Sural

Calf

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Vertebral

Area of the spinal column

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Superior

Toward the head(above the head).

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Inferior

Away from the head(below the head).

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Anterior(ventral)

Front of the body

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Posterior(dorsal)

Back of the body

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Medial

Towards the midline.

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Midline

Divides the body into left and right.

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Lateral

Away from the midline.

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Cephalad

Towards the head(head).

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Caudal

Towards the tail(tail).

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Proximal

Towards the point of attachment.

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Distal

Away from the point of attachment.

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Superficial(external)

Towards the body surface.

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Internal(deep)

Away from the surface of the body.

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Section

The process of cutting the body to study internal organization.

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Plane

Imaginary lines drawn on an upright body to describe location of structures and direction of movement.

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Sagital

Divides the body into left and right.

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Median line

Divides the body into equal left and right half’s.

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Frontal plane(coronal plane)

Divides the body into anterior and posterior sides.

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Transverse plane

Divides the body into superior and inferior parts.

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Cross section

A transverse cut through a structure or tissue.

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Serosa

The tissue of a serous membrane.

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Parietal

Lines the wall of body cavities.

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Visceral

A serous membrane that covers the internal organs.

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Mediastinum

The mass of tissues and organs separating the pleural cavities.

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Tissue

Group of similar cells working together.

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Organ

Group of similar tissues working together.

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System

Group of organs working together.

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Condenser

Is a small one that focuses light through the specimen.

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Iris diaphragm lever

Regulates the amount of light passing through the condenser.

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Ocular lens

Eyepiece of a microscope.

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Objective lens

Enlarges the image of the specimen.

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Cytokinesis

Division of the cytoplasm during cell division.

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Mitosis

Cell division that results in two identical daughter cells.

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Meosis

Cell division of gametes that result in four daughter cells.

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Chromatin

Cluster of DNA,RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell.

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Chromatids

Two identical chromosomes that split and contain the same genetic material.

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Centromere

Region of a chromosome where the two sister chromatids attached.

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Miotic spindle

Is made of microtubules that control chromosome movement during mitosis.

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Aster

A radial array of short microtubules that extends from each centromere in a dividing cell.

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Cleavage furrow

The area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell.

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Isotonic

A solution that has the same solute concentration as a cell.

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Hypertonic

A solution containing more solutes than a cell.

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Hypotonic

Solution with lower solute concentration.

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Crenation

Shrinkage of a cell in a hypertonic solution.

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Hemolysis

The process of a blood cell rupturing in hypotonic solution.

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Filtration

Movement of material through a membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure.

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Active transport

Energy requiring process that moves materials across a cell membrane against a concentration.

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Vesicular transport

Transport of large particles and macromolecules across plasma membranes.

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Solute pumps

Allows a molecule to enter the cell by way of protein channel.

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Endocytosis

The active transport of materials into a cell.

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Exocytosis

The active transport of materials out of the cell.

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Pinocytosis(fluid phase)

Engulfing of extracellular fluid by cells( cell drinking).

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Phagocytosis

Engulfing of large particles(cell eating).

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Receptor mediated

Is a receptor ligand interaction that allows specific molecules to be ingested into the cell.

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Histology

Is the study of tissues.

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Apical

Pertaining to the apex.

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Basement membrane

Delicate membrane of protein fibers separating the epithelium and its connective tissue layer.

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Basal lamina

A layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells.

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Reticular lamina

Deep to basal lamina, network of collagen fibers.

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Avascular

No blood vessels.

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Goblet cells

Secrete mucus.

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Endocrine glands

A ductless gland that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream.

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Exocrine glands

A gland that secretes it’s product into a duct.

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Hematopoietic

The terminology that represents blood and blood cells.

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Extracellular matrix

Combination of the fibers and ground substance that surrounds the cells.

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Ground substance

Fluid or semi fluid portion of the matrix.

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Fibers

Collagen, elastic, reticular fibers used for strength, flexibility, and framework.

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Mast cell

Are cells that release chemicals such as histamine that promote inflammation.

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Tendon

Attaches muscle to bone.

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Ligament

Attaches bone to bone.

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Aponeurosis

Strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone.

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Lacunae

Is an empty space around or within a cell that can be filled with fluid.

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Striations

Are the striped patterns in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle.

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Intercalated discs

Are gap junctions that allow the flow of ions.

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Neuroglia

Are the supporting cells that maintain physical structure.

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Neurons

Cells responsible for receiving, interpreting, and sending electrical signals.

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Grastrulation

The embryonic developmental stage in which the 3 germ layers are formed.

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Primary germ layers

Endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm.

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Endoderm

The innermost layer that gives rise to the glands and epithelial tissue.

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Mesoderm

The middle germ layer that gives rise to the muscle tissue and connective tissue.

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Ectoderm

The outermost germ layer that gives rise to the nervous tissue and epidermis.

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Hyperdomis

Looks connective tissue layer of the skin below the dermis.

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Keratin

Hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails.

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Melanin

A pigment that gives the skin its color.

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Decubitis ulcers

Bedsores caused by problems with dermal circulation.

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Albinism

Absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes.

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Vitiligo

Loss of pigment in areas of the skin.

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Cyanosis

Bluish discoloration of the skin.

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Jaundice

Yellowing of the skin and eyes.

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Dermal papilla

Fold in tissue that project in the epidermis and contribute to fingerprints.

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Addison’s disease

Occurs when the adrenal gland does not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone.

143

Eponychium

Cuticle

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Laluna

The pale crescent at the base of the nail.

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Papilla

Nipple-shaped elevation.

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Sebum

Oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands.

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Blackheads

Open comedones.

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Acne

Inflamed sebaceous glands.

149

Perspiration

The process of sweating.