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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (217):
1

Definition:
within genetic makeup

Inherited

2

Definition:
condition existing at birth and often before birth, or that develops during the first month of life (neonatal disease), regardless of causation eg. fetal alcohol syndrome

Congenital

3

Definition:
wear and tear eg. arthritis, osteoarthritis

Degenerative

4

Definition:
abnormal chemical reactions eg. diabetes

Metabolic

5

Definition:
caused from malnutrition anorexia

Nutritional deficiency

6

Definition:
mental health disorder

Psychogenic

7

Definition:
caused by an infectious agent eg. MRSA

Infectious

8

Definition:
caused with malfunction of immunity

Immunologic

9

Definition:
exposure to physical agents cause injury, eg. burn from fire

Physical agent

10

Definition:
neo means new, plastic means growth = cancer

Neoplastic

11

Definition:
caused by medical treatment, eg. side effects of medication

Iatrogenic

12

Definition:
unknown cause, eg. some forms of epilepsy

Idiopathic

13

quick onset, quick completion (either cure or death)

Acute

14

longterm, unknown cure

Chronic

15

Definition:
interval between exposure of a tissue to an injurious agent and the first appearance of signs and symptoms

Latent period

16

Definition:
the interval between the receipt of infection and the onset of the consequent illness or the first symptoms of the illness;

Incubation period (may be called latent period)

17

Definition:
the time during which a disease process has begun but is not yet clinically manifest

Prodromal period (prodrome)

18

Definition:
when the disease is at it's highest

Stage of manifest illness

19

Definition:
1. Gradual return to health and strength after illness;
2. The period needed for returning to health after illness

Convalescence

20

Definition:
A pathological condition resulting from a disease. eg. scar

Sequela

21

Definition:
A secondary disease, an accident, or a negative reaction occurring during the course of an illness and usually aggravating the illness.

Complication

22

Definition:
Not manifesting characteristic clinical symptoms

Subclinical

23

Definition:
To increase the severity, violence, or bitterness of; aggravate

Exacerbation

24

Definition:
1. Abatement or subsiding of the symptoms of a disease; 2. The period during which the symptoms of a disease abate or subside

Remission

25

Definition:
having severe symptoms and a short course

acute phase

26

Definition:
a disease that is native to a local region

endemic disease

27

Definition:
disease is disseminated to many individuals at the same time

epidemic:

28

Definition:
epidemics that affect large geographic regions, perhaps spreading worldwide

pandemic

29

•cell caps that shorten when chromosome divides
•every time telomere shortens results in less capacity for cell to regain normal function

Telomeres

30

•in order to survive, a cell must adapt
•adaptation is chronic
•cells that have adapted maintain normal function

Cell Adaptation

31

•cells become smaller

•Eg. Cells in the muscles shrink from disuse

Cell atrophy

32

•cells enlarge
•Eg. Muscle cells hypertrophy from exercise
•Eg. Hypertension causing enlarged heart

Hyperplasia

33

•Varying sized cells in an orderly growth pattern
•One type of cell is being replaced by another less functional cell
•Capable of regeneration into normal cells
•Eg. Healthy lung cells will be replaced by less functional cells in smoker’s lungs

Metaplasia:

34

•Nuclei are varying shapes and size

•Cells do not follow normal pattern of growth

•Considered pre-cancerous

Dysplasia

35

•cells have capacity to be injured
•when assault on cell is too severe, cell becomes injured
•injured cells cannot maintain normal function
•mild injury with a healthy cell - may recover
•severe injury with an unhealthy cell - may die

Cell Injury

36

after mild cell injury, cell may go back to normal function

reversibility

37

if cell injury is more severe, cell may die and will not return to normal function; cannot maintain homeostasis

irreversibility

38

•when cell is injured, sodium pump fails and causes sodium to come inside the cell causing cell to swell (Normally, ATP keeps sodium outside of cell & potassium inside the cell)

•water accumulation within cell causes damage to mitochondria
•all diseased cells begin with injury
•after injury cells go through swelling

Hydropic Swelling

39

•ATP pump malfunction may cause faulty lysosomes resulting in foreign substance build up in cell
•faulty metabolism with mitochondria damage causes substances to accumulate within the cell
•Eg. Fatty liver is caused by chronic alcoholism causing lysosome failure to digest fat

Intracellular Accumulation

40

•Cells are physically destroyed
•Extremes of temperature
•Electrical injuries
•Bumps, bruises, scrapes, abrasions, contusions

Physical and mechanical injury

41

•Chemicals can destroy a cell or alter the metabolism of cell
•eg. lead poisoning in children can lead to neurological damage

Chemical injury

42

•most common form of cell injury
•lack of blood and oxygen
•cells that are ischemic are vulnerable, so if oxygen is not restored soon cells will die
•once oxygen restoration is accomplished, reprofusion injury may occur
◦overflow of calcium disrupts mitochondria, free radical formation and inflamation
◦free radicals are unstable oxygen molecules

Ischemic Injury

43

Cell Death
irreversible natural cell death; necessary to make room for new cells

Apoptosis

44

Cell Death
irreversible premature cell death due to accidental injury

Necrosis

45

Which type of necrosis?

•Tissue made by denatured protein
•Gone through ischemia

Coagulative Necrosis

46

Which type of necrosis?

•Occurs in areas where there is very little connective tissue, caused by ischemia, bacteria, toxins
•Eg. Brain, absesses, cysts

Liquefactive Necrosis

47

Which type of necrosis?

•Injured tissue secretes lipase which breaks down normal tissue

Fat Necrosis

48

Which type of necrosis?

•Combination of liquifactive and coagualitive
•Cheese-like
•Typically found in lung tissue
•Eg. TB

Caseous

49

Which type of necrosis?

•Clinical term for necrosis

◦dry: form of coagulative necrosis, usually on an area with a lack of circulation, skin becomes dry and shrivelled, eg. on a foot
◦wet: commonly found on internal organs, eg. strangled hernia
◦gas: necrotic tissue has bubbles on it

Gangrene

50

Role of blood components

•RBCs:

carry oxygen

51

Role of blood components

•Platelets

blood clotting

52

Role of blood components

•WBCs

protect from infection, play a huge role in inflammation (5000-10,000/mm3)

53

What does blood play a huge role in _______?

Protection

54

•Post-surgical what will be elevated?

WBC

55

•Infection can be detected through _______ ________

blood screening

56

Which cell are the first responders?

WBC - Neutrophils 60 – 70%

57

WBC - Neutrophils are made in the?

•Made in bone marrow

58

•Reproduced quickly
•Quickly released during acute inflammatory response
•Stay in bloodstream for 6 hours
•Increase in neutrophils indicates infection

WBC - Neutrophils 60 – 70%

59

•Band cells are immature ______

Neutrophils

60

•2nd line
•Antibodies

WBC - Lymphocytes 20 – 25%

61

•Circulate in the blood
•Migrate into tissue and turn into macrophages
•Have the ability to engulf large bacteria

WBC - Monocytes 3 – 8%

62

•Protective as well
•Are particularily useful in parasitic infections
•Release chemicals that will damage parasites

WBC - Eosinophils 2 – 4%

63

Which cells are the Mischief makers in asthma (shed their granules that release chemicals causing allergic reactions)

WBC - Eosinophils 2 – 4%

64

•Contain granules that release chemicals causing inflammation
•Will be increased in a major trauma

WBC - Basophils 0.5 – 1 %

65

Inflammatory Response
How many stages to the inflammatory response?

3

66

Which stage?
Inflammatory mediators are released, blood vessels dilate, pores in blood vessels open up, fluid leaks into tissue

Stage 1

67

Which stage?

WBCs destroy invading pathogens through phagocytosis

Stage 3

68

Which stage?

WBCs leave blood vessels and enter into the tissue; diapedesis
◦margination: WBCs start sticking to the sides of blood vessels
◦chemotaxis: WBCs sliping out of the blood vessels after margination, and migrate to the site of injury

Stage 2

69

Clinical Manifestations of Inflammation

•Erythema
•Heat
•Edema
•Pain
•Loss of function
•Exudate: drainage of dead WBCs

Local: localized area around injury

70

Clinical Manifestations of Inflammation

•Pyrexia (fever: interleukin 1 acts on hypothalamus to increase body temperature to fight infection
•Fatigue
•Anorexia
•Leukocytosis: increased WBC count

Systemic: widespread throughout the body

71

Bacteria
Process by which bacteria divide

binary fission

72

Bacteria
How do bacteria cause infection?

colonizing

73

Bacteria
Bacteria will destruct if the_______ ____ ___ _____?

conditions are not right

74

Bacteria
Bacteria can live on __________ or ________?

•living or non-living media

75

Bacteria
Characterized according to shape:

round, berry-shaped spheres

◦cocci

76

Bacteria
Characterized according to shape:

rod-shaped, long and narrow

◦bacilli

77

Bacteria
Characterized according to shape:

spiral-form

◦spirochete

78

What is the protective coat that is critical to bacteria survival?

endospore

79

What is the test used to identify bacteria?

gram stain

80

Is Fungi Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic?

Eukaryotic

81

Is a Virus Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic?

Prokaryotic

82

Is a bacteria Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic?

Prokaryotic

83

disease caused by fungi

Mycoses

84

FUNGI
•well-developed
•eukaryotic
•2 life cycles: trophozoite turns into a cyst when conditions are too extreme (too hot, or ingested)

•microorganism that lives in water, plants, soil

•eg. bever fever

Protozoa

85

FUNGI
•parasites
•eukaryotic
•mouth that allows them to latch onto things
•eg. flatworms, roundworms, tapeworms

Helminths (greek for worms)

86


•smallest of all the infectious agents
•not living
•cannot reproduce on their own
•multiplies by cell invasion
•cannot grow in non-living material
•may have a long lifespan

VIRUSES

87

•purpose: cleans up old debris so that tissue cells ready can repair
•0-3 days

INFLAMMATION

88

•0-10 days
•increase cell proliferation on both sides of the wound
•increase in collagen (to form a bridge between two tissues)
•new basement membrane will form underneath healing ridge
•angiogenes (is new blood vessels to supply new tissue)

granulation

89

•3-30 days
•wound starts to shrink and mould
•tissue starts to become aligned properly

wound contraction

90

wounds healing by first intention

sutures or staples

91

wounds healing by second intention

leaving the wound open to heal from the bottom up, allows infection out

92

wounds healing by tertiary intention

wound left open until swelling subsides, after which wounds will be resutured

93

•new tissue replaces the old
•looks and acts like new
•some tissues have the ability to regenerate nicely
•eg. skin

regeneration

94

•tissue will repair but won't look or act like it did before
•eg. scar tissue

repair

95

when incision splits open

dehiscence

96

when incision splits apart and organs protrude

evisceration

97

What are the four processes of NOCICEPTION?

1. Transduction 2. Transmission
3. Perception 4. Modulation

98

What are the two set of fibers?

A fibers (fast fibers)
C fibers (slow fibers)

99

Which fiber is affected if it is a sharp shooting pain you feel first?

A Fibers (fast fibers)

100

Which fiber is affected if it is a dull aching pain that is long-lasting, eg. neuropathic pain

C fibers (slow fibers)

101

pain is alleviated by inhibiting substance P, what does is promote?

promotes endorphins and enkephalins

102

Definition

the amount of pain a person can tolerate before the person becomes aware of the pain, the point at which a person becomes aware of the pain

Pain threshold

103

Definition
the amount of pain a person can bear before they seek relief

Pain tolerance

104

Definition
when person first becomes aware of the pain

Pain perception

105

Pain effects all body systems

Describe how it effect the Respiratory

hurts too much to breathe

•Actelectasis & pneumonia

106

Pain effects all body systems
Describe how it effect the Muskuloskeletal

hurts too much to move

•Dvt
•Cardiovascular:
•High blood pressure

107

Pain effects all body systems
Describe how it effect the Endocrine

•Stress
•Cortisol

108

Pain effects all body systems
Describe how it effect the Immunity

•Cortisol decreases immunity

109

•Fast onset

Acute pain

110

•Long lasting pain
•C fibers are working overtime
•Has a different pathological response than acute pain
•Physiological changes in pain pathway

Chronic Pain

111

What is the difference between acute/nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain?

•acute is meant to be protective
•neuropathic pain has abnormal processing

112

Type of Pain
•Tissues deprived of oxygen
•Lactic acid (biproduct of anaerobic) sets off neurotransmitters

Ischemic pain

113

Type of Pain
•Pain sensation that occurs outside of where the tissue damage is

Referred pain

114

Type of Pain
•Can be acute or chronic

Cancer pain

115

Type of Pain
•Associated with chronic pain
•Inflammation and nerve damage to actual nerve fibers
•Characteristics
◦May not have high vitals
◦fatigue
◦Hyperalgesia: increased sensitivity to pain
◦Allodynia: pain is caused by something that doesn’t normally cause pain

Neuropathic pain

116

Type of Pain
•pain where a missing limb used to be
•very real and requires treatment

Phantom pain

117

•chronic pain is a stressor

Stress

118

secreted by adrenal medula; also called epinephrine

Adrenaline

119

how does epinephrine/Adrenaline effect our body?

•Increases heart rate and blood pressure,
•dilate pupils,
•contract skeletal muscle,
•vasodilation to release blood for muscles
•vasoconstriction around core and heart

120

What else does our body produce that helps epinephrine?

Cortisol

121

What does cortisol breakdown?

Protein

122

What does cortisol decrease?

muscle mass

123

Takes amino acids and burns them for energy and converts them into glucose (new glucose)

Gluconeogenesis

124

◦Hyperglycemia
*Hypertension
•Decreased protein synthesis
◦decreases wound healing
◦immunosuppression
•Decreases inflammatory response – poor wound healing
•Redistribution of fat
•Decreased blood flow to gastric mucosa – causing gastric ulcers

Effects or biological actions of cortisol

125

How many liters of water in the body?

42L

126

Who has a greater risk of dehydration? Why?

•Premature infants at greatest risk of dehydration because of a greater ratio of skin surface and kidneys cannot conserve water

127

What are the Two broad fluid compartments?

1.Intracellular (25 L)
2.Extracellular (17 L)

128

Movement of Water
movement of water through cell membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure

filtration

129

Movement of Water
moves water from blood vessels into interstitial space

hydrostatic pressure

130

Movement of Water
movement of water from an area of lesser concentration to one of more concentration

osmosis

131

Movement of Water
pressure that moves water from interstitial space into blood vessels

colloid osmotic pressure

132

What is the protein in blood?

albumin

133

Colloid osmotic pressure should equal ___________ ___________

hydrostatic pressure

134

measure of degree of concentration; number of particles per kilogram of solvent.

osmolality

135

measures the amount of substance in our blood

serum osmalality

136

SERUM OSMOLALITY IS ___ to ___

285-295

137

•Sudden weight loss
•Lightheadedness, dizziness, or syncope upon standing
•Sunken fontanel (infants)
•Rapid, thready pulse
•Low urine output (oliguria)
•Decreased skin turgor
•Absence of sweat and tears (infants)
•Hard stools
•Soft, sunken eyeballs
•Thirst
•Confusion, lethargy
•Hypovolemic shock



Signs of dehydration

138

•Acites (fluid buildup in the abdomen)
•Crackles on auscultation
•Edema (swelling) - particularly hands, feet, and ankles
•Difficulty breathing while lying down
•High blood pressure
•Irritated cough

Shortness of breath (dyspnea)

Strong, rapid pulse

Signs of hypovolemia

139

What is the best indicator for fluid status?

Urine output - norm: 30 ml/hr

140

•_______________ is when somebody has a collection of fluid in a place where it normally wouldn’t be
•Excess water is accumulating in peritoneal space

Third Spacing

141

A collection of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from a disease process, causing atelectassis

Pleural effusion

142

Tonicity

Fluid that has the same particle concentration (osmolality) as normal body fluid, will not change size of cells.

Isotonic

143

Tonicity

Fluid that has a higher particle concentration (osmolality) than normal body fluid; causes a net flow of water across cell membranes out of cells, causes water to come out of blood and the cells to shrink

Hypertonic

144

Tonicity

Fluid that has a lower particle concentration (osmolality) than normal body fluid; causes a net flow of water across cell membranes into cells., causes water to become more watery and the cells to swell

Hypotonic

145

What is the norm for Sodium (Na+)

136 – 145 mmol/L

146

What are the two types of sodium imbalances?

Hypernatremia

Hyponatremia

147

•too much sodium in the blood, caused by dehydration and eating too much salt
•clinical manifestations: thirst, lethargy, confusion, seizures, death

Hypernatremia

148

•too little salt in the blood
•clinical manifestations: Muscle cramps, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, malaise, headache, lethargy, seizures, coma

Hyponatremia

149

What is the norm for Potassium (K+)

3.5 – 5.0 mmol/L

150

What are the two types of Potassium imbalances?

Hypokalemia

Hyperkalemia

151

<3.5 mmol/L would be hypokalemia or hyperkalemia

Hypokalemia

152

•Clinical manifestations: Skeletal muscle weakness, abdominal distention, paralytic ileus, cardiac arrhythmias

Hypokalemia < 3.5 mmol/L

153

•Clinical manifestations: Skeletal muscle weakness, paralysis, cardiac arrest

Hyperkalemia > 5.0 mmol/L

154

What would be the norm for Chloride (Cl)

98 – 106 mmol/L

155

Chloride provides indication of

acid – base and hydration status

156

Chloride is performed as part of "electrolyte testing, what electrolytes are tested?

◦Sodium
◦Potassium
◦Chloride

157

Blood has pH of?

7.35-7.45

158

Blood pH of < 7.35

acidose, excess hydrogen, blood is acidic

159

Blood pH of > 7.45

alkalosis

160

What is the norm for pCO2

35 – 45 Hg

161

Acid Base Balance
Respiratory Acidosis/Alkalosis, Metabolic Acidosis/Alkalosis or Normal

pH 7.36 pCO2 39 HCO3 24

Normal

162

Acid Base Balance
Respiratory Acidosis/Alkalosis, Metabolic Acidosis/Alkalosis or Normal

pH 7.32 pCO2 49 HCO3 23

Respiratory Acidosis

163

Acid Base Balance
Respiratory Acidosis/Alkalosis, Metabolic Acidosis/Alkalosis or Normal

pH 7.48 pCO2 39 HCO3 20

Metabolic Alkalosis

164

Acid Base Balance
Respiratory Acidosis/Alkalosis, Metabolic Acidosis/Alkalosis or Normal

pH 7.48 pCO2 30 HCO3 24

Respiratory Alkalosis

165

Acid Base Balance
Respiratory Acidosis/Alkalosis, Metabolic Acidosis/Alkalosis or Normal

pH 7.30 pCO2 38 HCO3 20

Metabolic Acidosis

166

PCO2

•Check pCO2 if pC02 _____ then cause is respiratory

Less than 35 or greater than 45

167


PCO2
Check bicarbonate level if HCO3 is ______ then cause is metabolic

Less than 22 or greater than 26

168

• also known as immunoglobulins
• immunoglobulins fit like lock and key mechanism

B Lymphocytes (humoral immunity)

169

IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, IgD

Types of Immunoglobins

170

antibody that responds in blood transfusions

IgM ( it likes blood "M mmmmm blood)

171

o accounts for most antibodies
o respond to bacteria and viruses
o disease/virus-specific
o antibodies that mother passes on to infant

IgG (my momma "G ave" them to me)

172

o normally present in blood in small amounts
o elevated when allergic reaction present

IgE (give me a shot of "E pinephrine")

173

o antibodies found in body secretions (saliva and tears)
o born with them

IgA (I like my "A ntibodies").

174

*thought to participate in signal transduction across the B-cell membrane along with the B-cell receptors
*unsure of role

IgD (because it's the "D umb" one haha)

175

T-LYMPHOCYTES ARE _______ MEDIATED IMMUNITY

CELL MEDIATED

176

IMMATURE T-CELLS MATURE INTO EITHER _________ T-CELL OR ______________ T-CELL

HELPER T-CELLS & CYTOTOXIC T-CELLS

177

WHICH MATURE T-CELL KILLS INVADER DIRECTLY?

MATURE CYTOTOXIC T-CELLS

178

WHICH MATURE T-CELL HELPS BUILD ANTIBODIES?

MATURE HELPER T-CELLS

179

How can an antigen can recognize antibodies or other types of cells?

CLUSTER DIFFERENTIATION

180

WHY DOES HIV ATTACK T-HELPER CELLS?

BECAUSE OF CD4 RECEPTORS

181

TYPES OF IMMUNITY

NATURAL & ARITIFICIAL

182

IMMUNITY WE GET FROM BEING NATURALLY EXPOSED TO A DISEASE

NATURAL IMMUNITY

183

TWO PARTS TO NATURAL IMMUNITY

ACTIVE & PASSIVE

184

ANTIBODIES MADE BASED ON EXPOSURE RESULTING IN IMMUNITY

ACTIVE NATURAL IMMUNITY

185

ANTIBODIES THAT INFANT RECEIVES FROM MOTHER, RESULTING IN IMMUNITY FOR FIRST 3 MONTHS OF LIFE

PASSIVE NATURAL IMMUNITY

186

DELIBERATE EXPOSURE TO AN ANTIGEN

ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY

187

TWO TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY

ACTIVE & PASSIVE

188

WHICH TYPE OF IMMUNITY?

RECEIVING A VACCINE.

ACTIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY

189

WHICH TYPE OF IMMUNITY?

PERSON WHO HAS NOT BEEN PREVIOUSLY IMMUNIZED HAD BECOME EXPOSED, AND IS NOW RECEIVING IMMUNOGLOBINS (ImG) VIA INJECTION

PASSIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY

190

HIV IS PART OF WHICH FAMILY?

RETROVIRUS

191

HIV DESTROYS __________ CELLS WHICH MEANS NO ANTIBODIES ARE PRODUCED

T-HELPER CELLS

192

2 TYPES OF HIV VIRUS

HIV TYPE 1
HIV TYPE 2

193

WHICH OF THE TWO TYPES OF HIV VIRUS IS MOST FAMILIAR TO US?

HIV TYPE 1

194

WHICH 3 ENZYMES AID IN THE DAMAGING PROCESS OF HIV

PROTEASE
INTEGRASE
REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE

195

• uses glycoproteins to latch onto cell
o fuses to cell
o injects RNA into the cell
o reverse transcriptase takes RNA and turns it into DNA
o integrate takes DNA and puts it with DNA in the nucleus
o protease takes DNA and rebuilds it into RNA (rebuilds another RNA virus)

HIV LIFECYCLE

196

HOW IS HIV CONTRACTED

Mode of Transmission
• sexual contact
• blood or blood products
• mother to child transmission

197

HIV/AIDS PROGRESSION
4 STAGES

1. INITIAL INFECTION
2. SEROCONVERSION
3. CLINICAL LATENCY
4. AIDS

198

WHICH STAGE OF HIV/AIDS PROGRESSION:
o t helper cells are main targets (CD4 Molecules)
o rapid replication following exposure

INITIAL INFECTION

199

WHICH STAGE OF HIV/AIDS PROGRESSION:
o antibodies don't develop until 3 weeks to 6 months
o might have general flu-like symptoms (lethargy, sore joints) as body trying to fight off infection

SEROCONVERSON

200

WHICH STAGE OF HIV/AIDS PROGRESSION:
o symptoms disappear
o virus is still active and producing
o cytotoxic T cells are still working and trying to kill off virus
o over time cytotoxic T cells are going to diminish
o trying to destroy immune system at same time
o lasts about 10 years

CLINICAL LATENCY

201

WHICH STAGE OF HIV/AIDS PROGRESSION:

o CD count

AIDS

202

2 TESTS FOR HIV INFECTION

1. ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) TEST
2. WESTERN BLOT TEST

203

WHICH TEST FOR HIV INFECTION?
o looking for antibodies
o possible false negatives if taken before antibodies are produced because of 3 weeks "window period"

ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) TEST

204

WHICH TEST FOR HIV INFECTION?
o tested on HIV positive person
o helps to measure the progression

WESTERN BLOT TEST

205

IMMUNE SYSTEM IS BEHAVING INAPPROPRIATELY...

(LIKE AKRAM) - hehe

HYPERSENSITIVITY

206

THERE ARE _______ TYPES OF HYPERSENSITIVITY

FOUR

207

WHICH TYPE OF HYPERSENSITIVITY?
• allergic reaction, asthma
• histamines cause inflammation in the lungs resulting in:
o SOB
o bronchoconstriction
o wheezing
o increase in mucus production

TYPE 1 HYPERSENSITIVITY

208

WHICH TYPE OF HYPERSENSITIVITY?
• also known as
o cytotoxic
o tissue specific
• antibodies (IgG & IgM) attack antigens on the surface of specific cells
• eg. Graves disease, hemolytic anemia (incompatible blood transfusion)

TYPE 2 HYPERSENSITIVITY

209

WHICH TYPE OF HYPERSENSITIVITY?
• not tissue specific
• damage all blood vessels in any and all tissue
• destroys multiple tissues and organs at the same time
• eg. lupus

TYPE 3 HYPERSENSITIVITY

210

WHICH TYPE OF HYPERSENSITIVITY?
• t cells are culprits
• tissue specific

TYPE 4 HYPERSENSITIVITY

211

TYPES OF LUPUS

SYSTEMIC & DISCOID

212

WHICH TYPE OF LUPUS?
• Autoimmune
• Autoantibody production directed against nuclear antigens
• Antigen-antibody complexes form entering basement membrane of capillaries resulting in inflammatory response

SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

213

WHICH TYPE OF LUPUS?
• Affects kidneys, heart, brain, lungs, skin, joints

SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

214

WHICH TYPE OF LUPUS?
characteristic butterfly shaped rash on face because antigen-antibodies have attacked connective tissue in face

DISCOID LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

215


• acute or insidious
• arthralgia, fever, fatigue, joint deformities
• malar rash, lattice like venular skin changes, alopecia
• raynaud's phenomenon
• glomerulonephritis renal failure
• myocarditis CHF
• pleuritis, pleural effusion

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF LUPUS

216

LUPUS OCCURS MORE GENERALLY IN _________ OF _____ TO _____ YEARS.

FEMALES 15 - 40YRS

217

positive ANA test is usually present with positive anti-DNA (antibody to native DNA) and anti-Sm (antibody to Smith nuclear antigen)

TESTING FOR LUPUS