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An accurate biological definition of evolution is the change in ..?.. over a long period of time.

the genetic makeup of a population


What concept in his theory of evolution did Charles Darwin acquire from the writings of Thomas Malthus?

the potential for organisms to overpopulate


What is a key element of Jean Baptiste de Lamarck's theory of evolution?

Characteristics acquired by parents during their lifetimes can be passed down to offspring.


Charles Lyell was an advocate of:



T or F: One of the observations that Darwin found to be perplexing in his travels on the HMS Beagle was that animals on one island in an archipelago were nearly identical to animals on a neighboring island.



T or F: Darwin discovered that animals on the Galapagos Islands were similar to animals on the South American mainland.



The selective breeding of animals and pants by humans is also known as ..?.. selection.

artificial selection


Who synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Charles Darwin?

Alfred Russell Wallace


One of the assumptions involved in the concept of natural selection is that:

the world does not have enough resources to support increasing populations


Which of the following "best: describes natural selection?

(i) processes that change the genetic makeup of an individual
(ii) random elimination of alleles from the gene pool
(iii) chance of variation in traits
(iv) differential survival and reproduction of individuals
(v) inheritance of traits that parents acquire during their lifetimes

(iv) differential survival and reproduction of individuals.


T or F: Population genetics developed as a "new" way of looking at evolutionary biology after Gregor Mendel's work was rediscovered in the 1880's.



A Description of all the alleles at all the gene loci of a population is the:

gene pool


In a population with two alleles, the frequency of the A allele is 0.3. What is the frequency of the a allele?

0.7 is the frequency of the a allele


Which of the following statements is true about the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

(i) the population is not evolving
(ii) the population size is low
(iii) Individuals in the population select mates with phenotypes similar to their own
(iv) It is impossible to predict genotype frequencies in this population
(v) Migration of individuals out of the population frequently occurs

(i) the population is not evolving


Dominant alleles in a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium:

remain at a constant frequency indefinitely


In peas, a gene that controls flower color comes in two alleles; the allele R, codes for red flowers and is completely dominant over the recessive allele r that codes for white flowers. In an isolated patch of pea plants, thee are 64 red flowers and 36 white flowers. Assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what is the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotypes in this population?



For a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of the heterozygous genotypes in the population can be calculated by?



What process creates new alleles in gene pools?



a particular mutation that increases reproductive success in an individual is likely to:

be maintained by natural selection


In the diploid, sexually-reproducing species of vampire, Lamia edwardii, the mutation rate is about 10^-9 changes per base pair of DNA per generation. A gamete of Lamia edwardii has about 4x10^-9 base pairs of DNA. The number of new point mutations pr sperm cell would be estimated to be:



A small population of fruit flies that was once connected to a larger one but is now isolated is no longer experiencing:

gene flow


An allele in the gene pool of the Western NC cardinal population would be considered "fixed" if:

it is the only allele at that gene locus in the gene pool.


Which of the following was the bottleneck event that occurred in Illinois between 1820 and 1993 resulting in a reduction in genetic variability in the gene pool of the greater prairie chicken?

loss of habitat due to human encroachment


The common ancestor of the "Darwin's finches" left mainland South America to populate the "finch-less" Galapagos Islands. The evolutionary mechanism in action on the gene pools of the island populations was an example of:

a founder's effect


"Assortative mating: refers to situations where:

individuals choose mates with phenotypes similar to their own.


Female Mormon crickets prefer to mate with males who produce and display a large sperm packet from their abdomens.
(choose the appropriate term)
sexual selection
stabilizing selection
artificial selection
directional selection
disruptive selection

sexual selection


Finches on Santa Cruz Island (in the Galagapos) were discovered to have a distribution of beak sizes where the highest frequencies were for small beaks and large beaks; there were few finches with intermediate beak sizes.
(choose the appropriate term)
sexual selection
stabilizing selection
artificial selection
directional selection
disruptive selection

disruptive selection


Giraffes with longer necks are more likely to reach leaves that high in trees, which increases their chance of survival compared to giraffes with shorter necks that may not be able to reach those leaves.
(choose the appropriate term)
sexual selection
stabilizing selection
artificial selection
directional selection
disruptive selection

directional selection


In many species of birds, females that lay an intermediate number of eggs have the greatest reproductive success; those that lay too many or too few eggs have less reproductive success.
(choose the appropriate term)
sexual selection
stabilizing selection
artificial selection
directional selection
disruptive selection

stabilizing selection


Based on the concept developed by Charles Darwin, when Species A is more "fit" than Species B, then Species A ..?.. than Species B.

is more successful at reproducing


Using morphological species concept to identify a species requires comparison of a "test" organism to a standard called the:

type specimen


The biologist who proposed the "biological species concept" was:

Ernst Mayr


T or F: Reproductive isolation is the common feature of the morphological species concept, the biological species concept, and the lineage species concept.



The Bishop pine opens its cones for pollination between April and June, whereas pollination of the Monterey Pine occurs in January and February. The reproductive isolating mechanism that maintains the species integrity of these pine species is:



A characteristic unique to allopatric speciation is:

geographic isolation


Many important crops species are polyploids. Polyploids result from events during:



A new species of apple maggot fly is emerging in North America due to a shift in niche involving a subset of the ancestral fly population. This is an example of ..?.. in the animal kingdom.

sympatric speciation


Among the cichlid species living in Lake Victoria, a hybrid of two parent species is just as fit as the parent species. "T or F": Fusion of the gene pools is occurring, where reproductive barriers between the hybrid and parent species are breaking down.

This state is True


The Hawaiian Islands are a great showcase of evolution because intense:

allopatric speciation and adaptive radiation