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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (38):

T or F: Genomes are found in eukaryotic cells, but not found in prokaryotic cells.

This statement is false


Hox genes of fruit flies and butterflies have highly conserved sequences and are involved in determining ..?.. in these species.

embryonic development patterns


Ubx (ultrabithorax) is a gene that acts as a "genetic switch". In fruit flies, this gene switches "off" the gene controlling:

the production of wings on the T3 segment


Of the following anatomical structures, which one is homologous to the front leg of a cat?
(i) the pelvic bone of a snake
(ii) the tail fin of a fish
(iii) the wing of a butterfly
(iv) the arm of a human
(v) the paw of a dog

(iv) the arm of a human


Biologist have discovered that, in many places of the world, freshwater sticklebacks have a mutated form of the Pitx1 gene, which results in the inability of the body to produce pelvic and dorsal spines. They believe this mutation is favored by natural selection because:

there is less predation pressure in freshwater habitats compared to saltwater habitats


Studies of molecular evolution have revealed that multicellular organisms generally have ..?.. than unicellular organisms, but most of their genomes consists of ..?..

larger genomes
noncoding DNA


What process results in a cell acquiring multiple, duplicated copies of genes?



All the proteins of the globin gene family function in some way to:

carry oxygen molecules


When developing phylogenetic trees, it is most important to consider ..?.. when establishing the relationships between the species.

shared derived characters


T or F: In the Linnaean classification system, he uses three domain taxa in his classification scheme.



T or F: The proper way to publish the scientific name of the gorilla is Gorilla gorilla.

this statement is false


What have biologist learned from studying the fossil record?

Fossilized remains of organisms can reveal ancestral characters in lineages.


The Paleozoic era is characterized by:

a sudden diversification of many animal groups.


The half-life of a particular radioisotope is 5000 years. How many years would have to pass for an 80g sample of the radioisotope to decay to a 10g sample of that radioisotope?

15,00 years


What is the accuracy rate for radiometric dating techniques?

+ or - 10%


One consequence of the movement of the continental plates has been ..?.. where plates collide into one another.

the formation of mountain ranges


Evidence suggest that about 250 million years ago, all of Earth's landmasses were consolidated together in one large continent that has been called:



The extinction of the dinosaurs coincided with the:

crash of an asteroid or meteor into the area known as the Gulf of Mexico


Based on radiometric dating information, the age of the earth is approximately ..?.. old

4.6 billion years


The origin of cells on Earth occurred during the ..?.. period.

Precambrian period


T or F: The first cells on Earth were prokaryotic.

This statement is true


The oldest fossils of life forms have been discovered by careful microscopic examination of:



T or F: Alexander Oparin and J.B.S. Haldane independently developed hypothesis about the origin of life on this planet. This hypothesis concluded that oxygen gas was an important component in Earth's early atmosphere.

This statement is false.


T or F: Stanley Miller performed experiments in 1953 to show that biologically-important molecules could have arisen in Earth's early oceans, given conditions hypothesized by Oparin.



The "protocells" created by Sidney Fox in his laboratory in 1958 were similar to living cells, except that "protocells":

could not reproduce, but live cells could


Biologist believed that the first nucleic acids appear in cells were ..?.. molecules.



If a microbiologist says that a particular bacteria species is a "staphylococcus," he must mean that the cells are:

round and arranged in grape-like clusters


Which of the following structures is found in all bacteria species?
(i) lipopolysaccharide
(ii) nucleus
(iii) ribosome
(iv) capsule
(v) flagellum

(iii) Ribosome are found in all bacteria


What is the process by which bacteria reproduce?

binary fission


X-rays can be effective at sterilizing bacteria on surfaces. What is the mechanism by which X-rays kill bacteria?

formation of free radicals


Clostridium perfringens is an endospore-forming bacteria species. This organism is anaerobic and normally found in the soil. In what conditions would C. perfringens be most likely to form endospores?

during shortages of water


Identify the bacteria: These bacteria obtain their nutrition from the material found on our skin.

skin flora


T of F: One characteristic that makes the prokaryotes classified as Archaea unique is the unusual phospholipid monolayer found in the plasma membrane of some species.



In 2009, scientists discovered 17 different species of bacteria living in the iron-rich waters of blood falls, an outflow of a subglacial sea in Antarctica. What term best describe these bacteria?

extreme thermophiles


Lynn Margulis's Endosymbiotic Theory explains the origins of eukaryotic cells - including the origins of membrane-bound organelles - from the interactions between prokaryotic cells. Do mitchondria and chloroplast have outer, folded membrane surrounding an inner, smooth membrane?

No, They have their own DNA, ribosomes, are self reproducing, and are about the same size as a bacteria cell.


Some protists, such as Paramecium, are covered by an elaborate structure composed of an outer membrane and an inner layer of closely packed, membrane-enclosed sacs. This covering is called a:



For protists that reproduce by budding, the offspring:

are genetically identical to the parent organism.


Previous classification schemes for the protists were based primarily on:

method of locomotion