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1

two classes of vitamin E

 Tochopherols
 Tocotreinols (trienols)

2

vitamin E vitamers

alpha, beta, gamma, delta

3

only this has biological activity and can meet needs of the vitamin E

alpha- tocopherol

4

sources vitamin E

o Primarily plant foods
o Especially oils
o Sunflower, wheat germ, canola, rich in alpha tocopherol
o Soybean, corn less alpha higher gamma
o Green portions of leafs, - alpha tocopherol

5

RDA Vitamin E

o RDA 15 mg of RRR alpha-tochopherol, men women and prego. 19mg in lactating

6

where is vitamin E absorbed

the jejunum by passive diffusion

7

how do you test for vitamin E

 Blood analyses

8

what is the normal blood plasma for vitamin E

5- 20ug

9

who is at risk for vitamin E deficiency

including premature infants and those with fat malabsorption disorders like , cystic fibrosis and hepatobilary system disorders, like chronic cholestasis

10

symptoms of vitamin E deficiency

o Skeletal muscle pain (myopathy) and weakness, Ceroid pigment accumulation, Hemolytic anemia, and degenerative neurological problems (peripheral neuropathy ataxia, loss of vibratory sense, and loss of coordination of limbs

11

symptoms of vitamin E toxicity

o Mild gastrointestinal problems, nausea, diarrhea and flatulence, inpaired blood coagulation, possible increased severity of respiratory infections and occasional reports of muscle weakness fatigues and double vision. Increased mortality. (over 1000 mg)

12

what is the TU for vitamin E

1,000 mg

13

functions of Vitamin E

antioxidant, maintains cell membrane, oxidation protection, helps with age related macular degeneration (cataracts)

14

vit/min that work with vitamin E

selenium and vitamin C

15

How does vitamin C help E

C regenerates E

16

vitamin E interference

high intake E can interfere with other fat soluble vitamins, inhibits absorption and metabolism. impairs vitamin K

17

vitamin E cell membrane function

improves membrane structure , to enhance cellular glucose uptake

18

Vit E lipid peroxidation function

 suggested to diminish oxidation in those with conditions characterized by lipid peroxidation such as iron toxicity and diabetes.
 alpha-tocopherol also protects the fats in low density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidation.

19

where is Vit E stored?

no single organ. mostly in adipose tissue.

20

vit E function glucose transport

may improve insulin action and glucose disposal

21

two kinds of vitamin K

o Phylloquinone K1
o Menaquinone K2

22

sources of K1 (phylloquinone)

 From plant sources – green leafy
 Oils and margarines
 Rapeseed and soybean oil

23

sources of K2 Menaquinone

bacteria in intestines, animal foods: liver, fermented cheese and soybean

24

daily value of vit K

80µg

25

what destroys vit K

Exposure to light and heat

26

where does K1 absorb

requires no digestion, absorbed from the small intestine, jejunum as part of micelles

27

where does K2 absorb

Synthesized by some bacteria in lower digestive tract absorbed by passive diffusion from the ileum and colon

28

Normal blood plasma phylloquninone concentrations

0.15- 1.15 ng/mL (.3-2.5 nmol/L)

29

where is vit K stored?

cell membranes in several tissues - Lungs, kidneys, bone marrow and adrenal glands

30

is there limited or large storage cap for vit K?

With limited vitamin K storage capacity, the body recycles vitamin K in the vitamin K oxidation-reduction cycle in order to reuse it multiple times.(More information)