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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (164):
1

blocked meibomian gland

chalazion

2

chalazion

nontender, painless nodule that is inside the lid

3

trx for chalazion

warm, moist compress to eye 5-6x/day

4

Hordeolum is caused by

Staph aureus

5

internal hordeolum

chalazion

6

external hordeolum

stye

7

topical atbx are usually not effective for

hordeolum

8

Red, inflamed eyelids with crusting

blepharitis

9

risk factors for blepharitis

chalazion or hordeolum, immunocompromised, DM, acne

10

S/S of blepharitis

itching, tearing, photophobia, absence of eyelashes

11

main cause of viral conjunctivitis

adenovirus

12

drainage in viral conjunctivitis

serous or serosanguinous

13

symptoms of viral conjunctivitis last for

5-14 days

14

nonpharm trx for viral conjunctivitis

cool compresses and artificial tears

15

most common cause of bacterial conjunctivitis in children

H. influenza, Strep pneumonia

16

most common cause of bacterial conjunctivitis adults

Staph aureus

17

trx for bacterial conjunctivitis

trimethoprim-polymyxin B and fluoroquinolone gtts QID for 1 week

18

trx for allergic conjunctivitis

fenofexadine or loratadine

19

S/S of nasolacrimal duct obstruction

chronic tearing, eyelash debris, conjunctival injection;

20

congential nasolacrimal duct obstruction closes by

6 months

21

management for nasolacrimal duct obstruction

warm compress, massage

22

infection of the anterior portion of the eyelid

preseptal cellulitis

23

S/S of preseptal cellulitis

ocular pain, eyelid swelling and erythema

24

causes of preseptal cellulitis

insect bite, eyelid trauma, Strep pneumnoia, Staph aureus

25

diagnosis of preseptal cellulitis

contrast CT of orbit and sinuses

26

trx for preseptal cellulitis

clindamycin

27

infection of the orbit

orbital cellulitis

28

Complications of orbital cellulitis

loss of vision

29

s/s of orbital cellulitis

eyelid weakness, pain with eye movement, vision impairment, sinusitis

30

blood cultures in adults with orbital cellulitis

negative

31

trx for orbital cellulitis

vancomycin + IV unasyn or zosyn

32

risk factors for cerumen impaction

hx of seborrheic dermatitis or psoriasis, Qtips, excessive swimming

33

causes of conductive hearing loss

foreign body, otitis media, perf eardrum, otosclerosis of ossicles

34

when hearing improves in noisy environment

conductive hearing loss

35

Weber test in conductive hearing loss

sound lateralizes to impaired ear

36

Rinne test in conductive hearing loss

BC > AC

37

causes of sensorineural hearing loss

loud noise exposure, trauma, aging

38

when hearing worsens in noisy enviornment

sensorineural hearing loss

39

Weber test in sensorineural hearing loss

sound lateralizes to good ear- damage to inner ear impairs transmission

40

Rinne test in sensorineural hearing loss

AC > BC

41

The ear canal is often swollen, narrowed, moist, pale, and tender. It may be reddened.

otitis externa

42

Bacterial causes of otitis externa

Pseudomonas

43

Fungal causes of otitis externa

Aspergillus

44

S/s of otitis externa

otalgia, redness/edema to ear canal, itching, purulent discharge, normal TM

45

Drops in otitis externa

lie with affected ear up and maintain position for 5 min.

46

trx for otitis externa

ciprofloxacin + hydrocortisone 3 gtts BID x 7 days

47

causes of otitis media

S. pneumonia and H. influenza

48

s/s of otitis media

earache, fever, hearing loss, red and bulging TM.

49

risk factors for otitis media

daycare, URI, allergic rhinitis, secondhand smoke, first ep of AOM

50

trx for AOM:

amoxicillin 875 mg PO bid x 5-7 days

51

trx for AOM with PCN allergy

azithromycin 500 mg PO daily x 3 days

52

complication of recurrent AOM

cholesteatoma

53

management of epistaxis

applying direct pressure for 15 min sitting upright and leaning forward.

54

trx for anterior nare epistaxis

silver nitrate stick

55

trx for posterior nare epistaxis

referral to hospital or ENT.

56

counseling for epistaxis

avoid alcohol, vigorous exercise, ASA, and spicy foods.

57

s/s of rhinitis

allergic shiners, conjunctival injection, pale/boggy turbinates, clear nasal drainage

58

give diphenhydramine cautiously in patients with

BPH, COPD, and glaucoma

59

topical nasal steroids for rhinitis

Budesonide, flonase, and nasonex

60

s/s of sinusitis

fever, yellow nasal discharge, sinus tenderness, cough

61

acute sinusitis is for less than

4 weeks

62

causes of sinusitis

Strep pna, H. influenza, M catarrhalis, rhinovirus

63

most common cause of sinusitis in smokers

H. influenza

64

s/s of bacterial infection of sinusitis

fever, purulent nasal discharge for > 10 days

65

rebound nasal congestion

caused by use of sympathomimetic sprays or decongestants for > 1 week

66

pharm trx options for sinusitis

amoxicillin, augmentin, azithromycin, levqaquin

67

most common age for epiglotitis

children age > 7

68

usually appears as a cottage cheese like lesion that is easily removed by a swab; the underlying tissue may bleed after manipulation

candida albicans

69

diagnosis of candida albicans

hyphae on microscopic evaluation

70

trx for candida albicans

nystatin 5 mL S&S 4xday

71

white patches on the oral mucosa that remains despite attempts to rub it off.

leukoplakia

72

Borrelia burgdorferi

spread in tick bites that can cause Lyme disease

73

s/s of lyme disease

erythema migrans, fatigue, headache, fever, body aches, joint pain

74

screening for lyme disease

ELISA followed by Western Blot

75

trx for Lyme disease

doxycycline 100 mg PO bid for 14 days

76

Rickettsia rickettsii

bacteria that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

77

S/S of Mountain Spotted Fever

maculopapular rash begins around the wrist and ankles

78

number one cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children under one year old.

RSV

79

RSV s/s in children

PNA, wheezing, SOB

80

RSV s/s in adults

URI symptoms: cough, rhinorrhea, conjunctivitis, ear/sinus infections

81

trx not recommended for RSV

bronchodilators and corticosteroids

82

MRSA infected furuncles are resistant to

beta lactams and cephalosporins

83

trx for MRSA infected furuncles

clindamycin, Bactrim, Doxycycline

84

when to give HPV

age 9 in males and females

85

pencillin covers

gram +

86

extended spectrum PCN covers

gram+, gram -, beta lactam

87

Tetracyclines cover

gram -, atypical, MRSA

88

sulfonamides cover

gram -, MRSA

89

1st gen cephalosporins cover

gram +

90

2nd gen cephalosporins cover

gram+, gram -

91

3rd gen cephalosporins cover

weak gram +, gram -, b-lactam

92

azithromycin covers

gram +, gram -, atypicals

93

3rd generation fluoroquinolones cover

gram +, gram -, atypicals, b-lactam

94

rare retinal tumor in children

retinoblastoma

95

a patient with narrow angle glaucoma should avoid which OTC meds?

antihistamines and decongestants

96

used to measure intraoccular pressure

tonometer

97

acute conjunctivitis at birth may be caused by

N gonorrhea

98

loss of central vision

macular degeneration

99

age when vision progresses to 20/20 to 20/25

6 years

100

age when frontal sinuses develop

4-6 years

101

prophylaxis for allergic rhinitis

topical corticosteroid, mast cell stabilizer, saline rinses

102

rinne test is a test for

sensorineural hearing loss

103

s/s of otitis media with effusion

TM opaque, decrease TM mobility, bubbles

104

test to help confirm the presence of fluid in the middle ear

tympanometry

105

first DOC for otitis media

PCN

106

if there is atbx failure with otitis media, then add

b-lactamase coverage

107

if there is severe otalgia and fever in otitis media, then given an atbx that has

gram +, gram -, and beta lactam coverage

108

first line trx for bacterial pharyngitis

PCN

109

if there is a chronic or recurring pharyngitis, then

culture throat

110

most pharyngitis is

viral

111

beta lactam atbx

augmentin, 3rd or 4th gen cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones

112

grayish membrane on uvula and pharynx

diptheria

113

monospot is most likely to be positive ____ after infection

2-3 weeks

114

s/s of herpangina

sore throat, drooling, fever, ulcerations on tonsils and uvula, diarrhea, fever

115

hot potato voice indicates

peritonsillar abscess

116

cause of fifth's disease

parovirus 19

117

s/s of fifth's disease

slapped cheek, lacy rash on trunk and extremities

118

no longer communicable when rash erupts

fifth's disease

119

duration of fifth's disease

4-28 days

120

duration of herpangina

1 week

121

cause of roseola

human herpes virus 6

122

s/s of roseola

rose-pink maculopapular rash on trunk

123

red papules to soft palate or base of uvula in roseola

nagayama spots

124

cause of hand foot and mouth disease

coxsackie virus A16

125

cause of epiglottitis

H. influenza type B, strep, staph

126

s/s of epiglottitis

fever, stridor, drooling, beefy red pharynx, sniffing posture

127

s/s of peritonsillar abscess

unilateral sore throat, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, trismus, uvula deviated to opposite side

128

cause of peritonsillar abscess

streptococcus

129

viral causes of pharyngitis

rhinovirus, adenovirus

130

bacterial causes of pharyngitis

GABHS, H. influenza, Mycoplasma

131

centor criteria

fever, anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, tonsillar exudate, absence of cough

132

s/s of viral pharyngitis

sore throat, pharyngeal edema, nasal congestion, cough, diarrhea, conjunctivitis

133

high risk of this with hand foot and mouth disease

dehydration d/t inability to swallow

134

common in women with Fifth's disease

arthralgias for up to 21 days

135

causes of herpangina

enterovirus 71, coxsackie A16 and B virus

136

s/s of roseola

fever for 2-3 days, then rash on trunk and arms

137

complication of rocky mountain spotted fever

vasculitis

138

varicella vaccine

given at 12-15 months then 4-6 years

139

"bull neck" noted in

diptheria

140

DTap schedule

2, 4, 6, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years

141

TDaP schedule

11-12 years, then booster of Td every 10 years

142

H. influenza type b most common in

children less than 5

143

Hib immunization given

2, 4, 12-15 months

144

non-typable H influenza is frequently the cause of

otitis media

145

MMR vaccine given at

12-15 months then 4-6 years

146

white spots that form inside mouth

Koplik spots in rubeola (measles)

147

common sign of mumps

tender and swollen salivary glands

148

PCV13 given in children at

2, 4, 6, 12-15 months

149

most common cause of diarrhea in children

rotavirus

150

rotavirus vaccine given at

2 and 4 months

151

triangular shaped thickening of the bulbar conjunctiva

pterygium

152

First line drug for management of allergic rhinitis

topical nasal steroid

153

how many doses of hep B for a normal child?

3

154

sickle cell disease is indicated for which vaccine?

PPSV23 and PCV13

155

which vaccine-preventable infections can result in cirrhosis and cancer of the liver?

hep B

156

The inactivated poliovirus vaccine creates neutralizing antibodies to the virus after which dose?

3rd dose

157

diphtheria can increase the risk of death d/t complications of the

cardiac system

158

Which serotype(s) of the human papilloma virus can cause cancer?

16 & 18

159

there is no vaccine for this virus

RSV

160

drugs that can cause fever of unknown origin

anticonvulsants, beta-lactams, sulfa, allopurinol, heparin

161

vaccines that contain live viruses

influenza, shingles, MMR, varicella, rotavirus, typhoid, and smallpox

162

these people should not receive live attenuated viruses

immuno-deficient

163

HPV type 6 and 11 cause

genital warts

164

trx for posthereptic neuralgis

TCA such as amitrypilline