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1

The bottle neck effect refers to the lack of diversity in human?

DNA

2

According to the recent studies by scientists, the FOXP2 gene related to speech development is ONLY found in modern human beings. T/F

False

3

The Lascaux Caves typically show how prehistoric people used caves for their daily life such as sleeping and cooking. T/F

False

4

. According to the relics of Catal Huyuk, more expandable square houses replaced circular houses because the community developed toward an ownership-centered family system. T/F

true

5

. At the beginning of the Bronze Age, most metal working was undertaken by slaves T/F

false

6

The Euphrates River was diverted to supply water to the city, Nippur. T/F

True

7

Beer was available in the ancient Sumerian city, Ur. T/F

True

8

Biblical texts of Western civilization include some myths of the Mesopotamian world. T/F

True

9

Among the following items, which was NOT found in Merit of Deir el Medina’s “beauty box”?

Shaving Equiptment

10

In ancient Egypt, for a man to bring a woman a bundle of his property meant his desire to move in with her, usually being the first step toward marriage. T/F

true

11

. Although Harappa enjoyed a highly sophisticated urban life, it did not have any drains or sewers. T/F

False

12

No female Goddess was worshiped in ancient Indian societies.

False

13

Among the following, which served as the ancient Athenians’ gathering place, the hub of their commercial, political, and social activities?

Agora

14

Hippodamus of Miletus’s city-planning theory of orderly, regular cities spread to the Romans. T/F

True

15

As a place of shame, a bordello (“house of assignation”) was never advertised in public in Ephesus. T/F

False

16

Australopithecus- (Lucy)

Southern Ape
4 million years ago
two legs, brain size ape, 3'7''
discovered in awash valley of ethiopia.
Used but did not make tools

17

Homo erectus- "Turkana boy"

Upright human
Turkana, Kenya
5'3'' by age of 8 complete skeleton, brain between human and chimp. 900cc

18

What were some thing that homo erectus could do-

could run more sustainable with less body hair,
hunters.
Use diverse stone tools, could make tools.
used fire.
Social networks- took care of old.( empathy and cooperation)

19

Homo heidelberg-

Neanderthals 50,000 years ago

20

Homo sapiens-

modern human, 50,000 years ago.

21

Paleolithic era-

stone tools: spears, arrows, harpoons,
lived in groups of 20-30 based on kinship
women were gathers men hunters.
rituals and artistic activities.

22

Venue Figurines / Jomon Venus-

showed feminine figures as sacred objects, showed reproduction

23

Neolithic Ear-

New stone age
Polished stone tools
Start of agriculture
gradual transformation from hunting/ gathering to agriculture. domestication of animals
specializations in crafts and start of trade

24

Catalhoyuk in Turkey-

Neolithic Era, Largest human community
12 cultivated products

25

Copper/Bronze-

Copper-first metal used in producing tools and weapons,
Bronze -combination of copper and tin,

26

Chalcolithic period-

transition period between neolithic and bronze age.

27

The First Civilizations

river valley civilizations,
mespotamia, egypt, india, china

28

5 traits of the first civilizations-

1. Urban revolution
2. political and military structures
3.Social structure
4. economic specialization
5. Development of Writing

29

Mesopotamian Civilization-

Iraq and Syria the Tigris and Euphraties River
Sumerian city states: Ur, uruk, Girsu, Nipper
Agriculture: einkhorn wheat
Conflicts over land and water
invasions from Arkadians

30

Babylonian Empire-

The Amorites(old babylonians)
Hammurabi.

31

Hammurabi-

king who made the 4 quarters of the world subservient. created the code of hammurabi, set of laws.

32

Egyptian Civilization (=the Nile Valley Civilization)

Nile flows 4000 miles, ruled by pharroh capital was memphis. had canals, dams, irrigation ditches.
Opotimistic view on the world.

33

Cuneiform-

Wedge shaped system of writing

34

Upper southern egypt-
lower northern -

narrow valley of the nile
Nile delta
first dynasty make up the two

35

Pharaoh-

King of Egypt, commands vast wealth,chosen by the gods. mediator between the gods and people

36

Pyramids-

tomb for kings and queens, means "Great House" showed power and wealth

37

The 18th Dynasty (Egypt)

renewed the vigor, foreign expansion. Era of the new kingdom- height of power. Held the tomb of Tutankhamun.

38

Deir el Medina

village of artisans working on tombs in the valley of the kings.

39

Indus Valley Civilization-

India as a continent, hymilian mountains, ganges river (holy river)
Major cities: Harappa, Monhenjo-Daro,
had abundant rainfall,
writing system was pictographic symbols

40

Oracle Bones-

divinatory records inscribed on turtle shells, the earlist known form of chinese writing.
Ancestral worship in Shang religion and political culture.

41

The Persian Empire

the classical era,
originally Iran,
Nomadic organised into tribes, unified by Cyrus the great starting the Achaemenid dynasty.

42

yellow river civilization-

early agriculture, xia dynasty and shang dynsaty, yellow river and southern coast.

43

Cyrus the Great-

persians viewed him as father,
known for wisdom and compassion in conquest- allowed people to keep their religion.
unified the tribes of persia conquered media, western asia and babylon.

44

Persepolis-

City of persians, the closest city to the identity of the persians. destroyed in 330 BCE. one of 5 royal capitals

45

Zoroastrianism-

Religion
zoroaster- a semi legendary figure,
Emphasis on a struggle between good and evil, final judgement on souls. impact on christianity.

46

Ahuramazada-

supreme being- goodness, light, truth

47

Ahriman

darkness,evil

48

The ancient Greek Civilization-

mostly settled by non greeks,
The dark"middle" age
on the Aegean.
colonization of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Evolution of the Polis

49

The polis-

an autonomous unit of political, social, and religious activities.
"city state" many were towns or villages. the largest was Athens

50

The Greco-Persian War (5th century BCE)

conflict with the persian empire,
beginning of the classical period.
persia invaded greece, led by zerxes.

51

Zerxes-

King of the Persians who invaded greece.

52

Herodotus-

greek historian who wrote about the persians

53

Sparta-

Authoritarian military state, with slaves led my leonitis .

54

Democracy of Athens-

Alliance of greece under the leadership of athens.
Development of democratic system.

55

4 things in the Athenian democratic system-

lowerclass could hold office
city magestrates
a board of 10 officials
preventing dictatorship of generals.

56

The Great Peloponnesian Wars

war between Sparta and Athens, basically destroyed each other but Athens was defeated. Destroyed the possibility of cooperation among greek states.

57

The Olympic Games

religious and athletic festivals every 4 years. Suspension of conflicts. only males competed.

58

Macedonia-

a buffer between the greek states and barbarian tribes.
Same as greeks but semi barabric.
Lacked money, constantly warring, internal strife.

59

Alexander the Great-

Conqueror who led the greeks against the persians and conquered all the way to india. Became king of the persians. Died of posin from white hellebore.

60

Hellenistic world-

Mixture of greek and non greek culture.
Development of urban cities.
cultural and intellectual accomplishments by seperation of science from philosophy, development in math and astronomy.

61

The Aryans-

Noble or freeborn, indo-european speaking people