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What is propaganda?

ideas, facts or allegations spread deliberately to further one’s cause or to damage an opposing cause


What are the characteristics of propaganda?

a. Carries and promotes a belief or system of attitudes that is dogmatic
b. Uses the mass media to deliberately spread the belief system
c. Conceals the source of the message or the true goal of the source
d. Aims at uniformity of belief and behavior
e. It usually circumvents the reasoning process and pushes for illogical reasoning


What was the first formal teaching of persuasion?

a. Began with the sophists then continued with Aristotle


What is an Enthymeme?

a. You are participating in your own persuasion, or anything that is unspoken that is left for you to fill in


What is the difference between Aristotle’s artistic and inartistic proofs?

a. Inartistic are things that are mathematical, coercion, evidence, and style of delivery is not relevant.
b. Artistic just tries to persuade people based on argument


Aristotle’s 5 Canons

a. Memory
b. Delivery
c. Invention
d. Arrangement
e. style


Process of identification according to Burke?

Your emphasizing between yourself and the audience. Obsoletes intrigue, similarities attract


What is self persuasion?

Persuasion requires intellectual and emotional participation between both the persuader and the audience


What is the Shanon Weaver Model?

All of the procedures by which one mind may affect another


What is the Elaboration Likelihood Model?

Two routes taken which are central and peripheral. Central is cognitive, long and hard. Peripheral is lazy quick and easy. Cognitive lasts longer.


What is the Social Judgment Theory?

We all have an internal measuring stick of acceptance, rejection or undecided


What is topoi?

Places or topics of argument that are a good way to establish common ground (Aristotle)


What is the most common appeal in persuasion?



What is the principle that people are attracted to rewarding situations to eliminate uncomfortable positions?

Pleasure-pain principle


What is the boomerang effect?

The effect when when a speaker brings the message back to the crowd’s reaction or fear appeals


What is symiotics?

The study of signs and symbols


What is emotionally triggered reactions to symbolic acts?

Signal responses


What are extensional devices in indexing?

Techniques for neutralizing or defusing emotional connotations


What do Extensional Devices in indexing do?

Control connotations


When are Extensional Devices Indexing used?

To neutralizing or defusing the emotional connotations


What is a metaphor?

a. Most powerful, persuasive, memorable, and most likely to require trule artistic language creativity
b. Made up of a tenor and vehicle


What are the 3 dimensions of language?

a. Functional = the job words can do
b. Semantic = the meaning for a ward
c. Thematic = the feel and texture for a word (swoosh)


What is an alliteration?

Repetition of consonant sounds


What is assonance?

Repetition of vowel sounds


What is Weavers Guide?

a. Simple sentences = single, complete thought or point
b. Compound sentences = two or more simple sentences joined by “and” or “but”
c. Complex Sentences = contains compound components but they cannot stand alone


Pragmatic style

Audience has to be brought around to the point of view of the speaker


Unifying style

Audience is already unified; the speaker is promoting what they already know


Notion where people try to avoid negative messages they cannot change

Defensive avoidance