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broadly shared values, beliefs, and attitudes about how govt should function and how politics should operate

political culture


belief that govt should lmt its role to providing order in society so that citizens can pursue their econic self-interests; places low value on citizen participation; govt should be left to professionals

individualistic PC


belief that govt should be dominated by political elites and guided by tradition; routed in emphasizing social hierarchy and close interpersonal and familial relations among ppl; concerned w/ preservation of trad and existing social order; public participation is lmted and run by estbd elite

traditionalistic PC


when one political party dominates government and all other parties take a limited and controlled participation in elections

one-party system


when two major political parties dominate politics within government; one typically holds a majority in the legislature while the other is the minority party

two-party system


narrow, lmted and self-interested view of world often associated with rural values and notions of lmted govt



-northward => increasingly arid, forests less freq, post oak trees replaced by praries and brushlands of Central TX;
-eastward => hilly surfaces of forests, where timber prdcn largely takes place, some oil fields;
-westward => cotton prdcn in past, now manufacturing base;
-southern/Rio Grande Plain and Lwr Rio Grande Plain => livestock important, winter vegetable and fruit prdcn;
-where TX political life grew out of as TX went from plantation life preCW to industrialized areas; domd by rural conservative values with new dimensions bc of urbanization

Gulf Coastal Plains


-predominately agricultural economy
-West TX Rolling Plains are lvl, cultivable land and large cattle-raising industry;
-domd by conserve politics / Repub party

Interior Lowlands


-nthn economy: domd by ranching and petroleum prdcn
-sthn economy: domd by agriculture and cotton prdcn
-conservative but will likely be affected by urbanization

Great Plains


-political culture domd by fact that TX and Mexico have been joined at hip economically and demographically; has remained Dem bastion

Basin and Range Province


20th cent economist that characterized capitalist econic sys of "creative destruction"

Joseph Schumpeter


creates new econic and social worlds while also destroying old ones

creative destruction


*one of oldest crops in TX; really began in 1821 w/ arrival of white Amns; industry promoted by political independence, statehood, and ongoing removal of Native Amn "threat"; stimd by breakthrough of barbed wire, building of RRs, and newly designed plow; sharecropping of 1870s fueled radical political discontent -> Grange and Populist mvmts
*started around same time; offered immigrants alt to farming; lmtd to local areas until RRs opened new markets in east; took off after CW and barbed wire
-neither drives political economy as did in past

cotton and cattle


-bcame economically viabke in 1898; TX accelerated into ___ era by discovery in Spindletop in 1901; by 1930, prwd TX economy instead of agri; led to new industrial rev and more migration from farms to cities -> creation of heartland of TX economy and pop (SA to DFW via 35, DFW to H via 45, H to SA via 10)
-led to boom-and-bust mentality and dev of TX RR commission
-increased state revenue via prdcn taxes, also helped fund hier edu in TX bc of PUF
-paved way for private philanthropy

oil and gas


after econic malaise of 1980s, TX emerged with transformed state economy driven by rapidly growing and diversifying economy w/ heart at mnfctring sector tied to ___; Austin, Dallas, Houston stand out

high tech


trade treaty among US, Canada, and Mexico to lwr and eliminate tariffs amg the 3 countries; sought to create a free trade zone; controversial bc of job loss potential, has benefitted TX by diversifying economy; resulted in loss of jobs but more revenue / trade



began in 2007; took TX four yrs to recover; one of last to enter and first to leave bc low-taxes, low services, free mrkt govt, entrepreneurial sprit, less foreclosure rates, constitutionally stated mortgage policy, and diversified economy (internatl trade, resurgent oil and gas industry)

Great Recession


process by which people move from rural areas to cities; is leading to increasingly Dem cities while rural areas are solidly Repub and suburbs have pockets of both, but also more Repub



Latino (and Asian) pop growing, TX is full of younger and poorer ppl, minorities have ldrs in various lvls of govt; typical white person no longer typical TXn; ppl are increasingly coming via domestic immigration

changing demographics in TX


the individ from which the TXC's description of role of govt "to protect lives, lib, and property of the ppl"; English philosopher and physician of Enlightment Era

John Locke


concerned with the origin of society and legitimacy of authority; involves the state of nature (where individs had perfect freedom and ppl decide everything for themselves ) and the surrendering of some of our freedoms to submit to authority and achieve protection; there is an agreement entered into by a group of individs surrendering some of their freedom to an authoritative body/group

Theory of the Social Contract


legal structure of a govt, which estbs its pwr and authority as well as places lmts on that pwr; legitimize state political institutions by clearly explaining source of their pwr and authority, delegate pwr by explaining which pwrs are granted and to whom, what, and how pwrs are to be used, prevent conc of pwr by providing checks and balances, and define lmts of pwr by forbidding intrusion of certain govtal activities into lives of individs (thru rights)



principle of interpretation that views the Constitution's meaning as fixed as of the time of enactment; as constitution reads, the laws stand; somewhat Repub view



first written constitution of the US; created out of fear of central authority and extensive land claims by states; states remained sovereign and independent; Congress was also given the authority to make treaties and alliances, maintain armed forces, and coin money; estbd weak and ineffective form of central govt

Articles of Confederation


1) Break w/ Mexico and creation of Republic : 1836 and Constit
2) Annexation (pulls down Republic flag and becomes US State): 1845
3) Secession (pull down US flag and go forward): 1861
4) Reconstruction to 1876 (N comes in, military occupies, you get weak and strong Reconstruction, redemption of secessionists, foundational TXC)

Four Stages of the Texas Founding


said to be the same type of stimulus to the Texas Revolution that the Stamp Act was to the American Revolution, was initiated by Mexican minister of foreign relations, and was designed to stop the flood of immigration from the United States to Texas

Law of 1830


served as the provisional government of Mexican Texas from November 1835 through March 1836 during the Texas Revolution; tensions rose in Texas during early 1835 as throughout Mexico federalists began to oppose the increasingly centralist policies of the government; was not completely representative of all of Texas; three issues dominated Consultation deliberations—the purpose of the war, the power and structure of government, and the virtues of different leaders; resulted in creation of provisional govt

The Consultation


TX annexed in 1845/became part of Union -> Mexico freaked out and was weak republic; US/TX knew it and US wanted a war; lasted 1846-1848; was a problematic war that many were against, but Mexican-American War was great because we got a lot of land

Mexican American War


formed bc influx of Amns into Mexico -> discontent amg TXns over place in Mxn federal sys -> conventions and draft of new constit, rebellion, and draft of grievances and TX DoI; wanted freedom of religion, sys of public edu, and trial by jury

The Texas Republic


occurred in 1845; new constitution drafted; occurred with provisions that __ cede to __ all military armaments/bases/facilties pertaining to public defense, __ retained right to all its vacant and unappropriated lands and its public debts, __ given permission to break up into four addl __ when pop proved adequate

annexation and statehood