Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (49):
A systems development project consists of?
- a planned undertaking
- a large job
- produces a new system
A successful project requirements are?
- detailed plans
- organized and methodical sequence of tasks and activities
AIDS - What are methodologies?
- comprehensive guidelines to follow for completing every Software Development Life Cycle
- collection of techniques
AIDS - what are models?
- representation of an important aspect of the real world
- diagrams and charts
- project planning aids
What are the models of system components?
- flow chart
- data flow diagram (DFD)
- entity-relationship diagram (ERD)
- structure chart
- use case diagram
- class diagram
- sequence diagram
What are the models of the development process?
- PERT chart
- GANTT chart
- organizational hierarchy chart
- financial analysis models (NPV, ROI)
What are the tools that assist in the analysis and design process?
- software support that helps create models or other project components
- from simple drawing programs to complex CASE tools
- software that writes software
What are the techniques that assist in the analysis and design process?
- collection of guidelines that help the analyst complete a system development activity or task
- step-by-step instructions
- general advice
What are the 3 approaches to system development?
- structured programming
- structured analysis
- structured design techniques
What is structured programming?
- developed in the 1960's to improve computer program quality and allow other programmers to easily read and modify the code
- each program module has one beginning and one ending
- three programming constructs (sequence, decision, repetition)
What are the three constructed programming constructs?
sequence - straight line after line code.
decision - if statements
repetition - loops
What is top-down or modular programming?
- divides complex programs into hierarchy of modules
- one module at the top controls execution by "calling" lover level modules as needed
What guidelines are present in a structured design?
- what the set of programs should be
- what each program should accomplish
- how programs should be organized into a hierarcy
What principles of programming modules are present in a structured design?
- they are loosely coupled
- they are highly cohesive
What does DFD stand for?
Data Flow Diagram
What does ERD stand for?
What is Structured Analysis?
- helps developer define what the system needs to do (process requirements including - data to store and use, inputs and outputs, and how functions work together)
- DFD's and ERD's commonly used to show results of structured analysys
How does the structured approach work?
- Structured analysis leads to structured design, which leads to structured programming.
What is the traditional approach?
- merges information engineering with the structured approach
- used widely in system development
What are the four SDLC Variations?
- Emphasis on people
- Speed of development
What does the waterfall model consist of?
- project planning
What is the naming convention for the traditional SDLC?
- Feasibility study
- System investigation/analysis
- System design
- Review and Maintenance
What is the naming convention for information engineering?
- Information strategy planning
- Business area analysis
- Business system design/Technical design
What is the naming convention for the Objectory style?
What are all the fully explained stages of SDLC?
- Organize the project and study feasibility (study and analyze the current system)
- Model and prioritize the functional requirements ( generate alternatives and propose the best solution)
- Design the system ( obtain needed hardware and software)
- Build and test the new system ( install and operate the new system)
What does the iterations across life cycle look like?
some analysis, some design, some implementation, more analysis, more design, more implementation, even more analysis, even more design, even more implementation
What are the phases of the multiview SDLC?
- analysis of human activity
- analysis of information
- analysis and design of sociotechnical aspects
- design of the human-computer interface
- design of the technical aspects
What is Computer-Aided System Engineering? (CASE)
- automated tools to improve the speed and quality of system development work
- database of information about system called repository
What does the CASE tool repository consist of?
- diagram generator
- design generator
- code generator
- database generator
- prototyping tool
- query tool and report generator
- security and version control
- error-checking tool
- reverse engineering tool
- drawing tool
What are the Analysis Key Questions?
- gather information
- define system requirements
- prioritize requirements
- prototype for feasibility and discovery
- generate and evaluate alernatives
- review recommendations with management
What does gathering information consist of?
Gather information - Do we have all of the information (and insight) we need to define what the system must do?
What does define system requirements consist of?
Define system requirements - What (in detail) do we need the system to do?
What does prioritize requirements consist of?
Prioritize requirements - What are the most important things the system must do?
What does prototype for feasibility and discover consist of?
Prototype for feasibility and discovery - Have we proven that the technology proposed can do what we think it will do? Have we built some prototypes to ensure the users will fully understand the potential of what the new technology can do?
What does generate and evaluate alternatives consist of?
Generate and evaluate alternatives - What is the best way to do it?
What does Review recommendations with management consist of?
Recommendation with management - Should we continue and design and implement the system we propose?
What are the two main methods of designing a program?
What are the phases of the Multiview SDLC?
Analysis of human activity, analysis of information, analysis and design of sociotechnical aspects, design of the human-computer interface, design of the technical aspects
What does SDLC stand for?
Software Development Life Cycle
What are the two main system requirement categories?
Functional & Technical
What do the Functional requirements of a system consist of?
- activities the system must perform
- based on procedures and business functions
- be documented in analysis models.
What do the Technical requirements of a system consist of?
- describes operating environment or performance objective
- documented in narrative descriptions of technical requirements
What are the three primary groups of stakeholders?
Users (use system), clients (pay for system), Technical staff (ensure system operation)
Who else besides the primary groups are considered stakeholders?
any other groups of people that have an interest in the system
What are the two types of user roles?
Horizontal & Vertical
What is the horizontal user role?
Horizontal - information flow across departments
What is the vertical user role?
Vertical - information need of clerical staff, middle management, executives
What does the current approach to requirements development consist of?
- Identify current system procedures
- Develop requirements and models for new system