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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (77):

Ralph David Abernathy

Montgomery Preacher who came up with the name Montgomery Improvement Society. He helped write up the demands for the Bus Boycott, and was a close friend and adviser to King even attempting to bail him out and telling him his house had been bombed. He was a founding member of the SCLC and had his own house bombed.


Marian Anderson

Anderson had been scheduled to sing at Washington’s Constitution Hall, but the Daughters of the American Revolution, a political organization that helped manage the concert hall, denied her the right to perform because of her race. The first lady, Eleanor Roosevelt, resigned her membership from the organization in protest, and Anderson’s alternate performance at the Lincoln Memorial served greatly to raise awareness of the problem of racial discrimination in America.


Ella Baker

Was a leader in the SCLC and the sit in movement. She believed that students should lead the charge and organized the Youth Leadership Meeting to galvanize youth activism.


Daisy Bates

Mentore for the Little Rock 9. They would gather at her house every day and then carpool to school.


Mary McLeod Bethune

National advisor to President Roosevelt and a member of his Black Cabinet.


Ezell Blair, Jr.

One of the Greensboro 4


Tom Brady

Judge Tom P. Brady of Brookhaven, Mississippi, has been called the "intellectual leader" of the Citizens' Council movement. He wrote the famous Black Monday speech which criticized Brown V Board and was widely read and distributed.


Minnie Jean Brown

One of the Little Rock 9 who got angry with a short white guy described by Earnest Green as a "Yapping dog" and threw her chili on his head. She was expelled and finished her schooling at a private school.


Roy Bryant

One of the Men who murdered Emmett Till after Till allegedly flirted with his wife. He was acquitted by an all white jury. He confessed to the murder by bragging about it later.


Asa Carter

A speechwriter for George Wallace. He was one of the most violent and extreme white supremacists in the South and was a leader in the KKK. He was involved in the kidnapping and torture of Edward Aaron and wrote Wallace's famous Segregation inaugural address.


Robert Charles

Ida B Wells called him the hero of New Orleans. He was a black man who was wrongly arrested by 3 white officers and shoots one before grabbing a rifle and killing 5 and injuring dozens before being caught, killed and mutilated.


Kenneth Clark

Psychologist who's research was a large part of Brown Vs Board


Claudette Colvin

Teenage black girl who was arrested for failing to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus. Nixon chose not to use her to spark the movement because she had cussed out the cops and was pregnant out of wedlock.


Bull Connor

Birmingham Commissioner of public safety famous for his violent response to civil rights. He first became a foil for Civil rights when he arrested members of the freedom rides and Shuttlsworth.


U.S. Congressman Charles C. Diggs, Jr.

Congressman from Detroit who attended Till's accusers trial and was treated with incredible racism.


John Doar

Lawyer who worked for Robert Kennedy and witnessed the violence against the Freedom Riders in Montgomery


W. E. B. Du Bois

One of the foremost black intellectuals of the early 20th century. He was a foil to Booker T Washington and pushed for a more activist black civil rights movement. He argued for persistent, manly agitation and after WW1 he said “We return from fighting we return fighting”


Clifford Durr

White Montgomery lawyer and activist who bailed Rosa parks out of prison and played a legal role in the Suit against Montgomery


Virginia Durr

Outspoken wife of Clifford Durr.


Elizabeth Eckford

One of the Little Rock 9 who wasn't told not to go to school by Daisy Bates and walked through a mob to get there. She was helped by Loach.


President Dwight Eisenhower

President who ordered the desegregation of Little Rock Central High and Nationalized the national Guard to enforce the law. He later called appointing Earl Warren to the Court one of his biggest mistakes.


Sam Ervin

North Carolina Senator who was the author of the Southern Manifesto


James Farmer

The National Director of CORE. He put out the public call for the start of the Freedom Rides and was a passionate and articulate activist. He gave the SNCC students permission to start the Freedom Rides and sit-ins.


Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus

Governor of Arkansas who was considered a race moderate. Facing re-election he decided to block de-segregation at Little Rock Central High but was forced by the Eisenhower Administration to comply.


James Forman

SNCC executive secretary.


Marcus Garvey

Founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the early 20th century. He fundamentally agreed that the US was a white mans country and called on Blacks across the world to liberate Africa.


Robert Graetz

White preacher and friend of Rosa Parks who accompanied her to Highlander Folk School and drove cars for blacks during the boycott. He was nearly killed in the Montgomery bombing attack on his home.


Ernest Green

The only of the little rock 9 to graduate.


Fred Gray

Montgomery's preeminent black attorney. He was the principle attorney for the Montgomery Bus Boycott. He filed suit against Montgomery demanding full integration of the busses


James Hicks

editor of the Amsterdam news. Was the only representatives of the black press at Little Rock.


Myles Horton

Founder of Highlander Folk School as a multiracial gathering of activists. He had roots in the labor movement.


Charles Hamilton Houston

Dean of Howard Law School. He purposefully transformed it into a leading school to fight desegregation and was a mentor of Thurgood Marshall


Bernice Johnson

Founder of the SNCC Freedom signers and leader in the Albany Movement


Judge Frank Johnson

US District Judge who brought in a panel of judges and ruled on the Montgomery Boycott Case in favor of the blacks. He was a law school classmate of Wallace. He forced Wallace to had over voting records and threatened to throw him in jail if he didn't.


John F. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy

President of the US and his Brother the Attorney General of the US. They were allies to Civil Rights


Martin Luther King, Jr.

Leader of the Montgomery Bus Boycott and leading Icon of the Civil Rights movement.


James Lawson

Methodist Minister and Pacifist leader from Ohio who studied non-violence in India. He moved to Nashville at the urging of King and did non-violence workshops for student groups.


Grace Lorch

White women who escorted Elizabeth Eckford to safety during the de-segregation of Little Rock Central High.


Floyd Mann

Alabama director of Public Safety. He agreed to provide an escort for the Freedom Rides through Alabama along with Governor Patterson. He saved the freedom riders from a man in Montgomery.


Thurgood Marshall

Legendary NAACP attorney who was educated at Howard and the attorney for Brown V Board as well as many other cases that challenged segregation. He also represented Law School student Bruce Boynton after he was arrested for seeking service in a white restaurant.


Franklin McCain

One of the Greensboro 4


Joseph McNeil

One of the Greensboro 4


J.W. Milam

One of the Men who murdered Emmett Till. He was acquitted but latter confessed by bragging about the murder.


Mamie Till Mobley

Emmett Till's mother who insisted on having a public viewing of her sons mutilated body. The shock of his brutal murder helped spark the broader civil rights activism of the 1950s


Anne Moody

Author of Coming of Age in Mississippi which details her fear and her hate after the death of Emmett Till. She says she not only came to hate White people but cowardly blacks as well.


Diane Nash

Student from Fisk University who went through Lawson's non-violence training. She confronted the Mayor of Nashville and got him to support desegregation and she led the later stages of the Freedom Rides despite pressure from the Kennedy Administration to stop.


E.D. Nixon

President of the Union of sleeping car porters and a protege of A. Philip Randolph. He was a confrontational activist and was looking for someone to spark the bust boycott. He successfully convinced Rosa Parks to become the figurehead of the movement after her arrest. He also helped draw up the demands of the Boycott


Rosa Parks

Montgomery NAACP secretary whose act of protest on the Montgomery buses launched the Montgomery bus boycott at the urging of Nixon. She remained at the forefront of the civil rights movement and was heavily involved in Highlander Folks School


A. Philip Randolph

Founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and a leader in the Double V campaign and threatened a March on Washington which successfully pressured President Roosevelt to Desegregate federal contracting.


David Richmond

One of the Greensboro 4


Jo Ann Robinson

English Professor at Alabama State and president of the Women's Political Council she printed 35,000 flyers after the Arrest of Rosa Parks and distributed them in support of the Boycott.


Fred Shuttlesworth



Mary Louise Smith

Young girl who was a witness for the case against Montgomery because of her forceful removal for not giving up her seat.


Emmett Till

14 Year old Boy from Chicago who was murdered by Bryant and Milam for flirting with Bryants wife. His mother displayed hi body and publicized his death which sparked a wave of activism in the 1950s.


President Harry Truman

Attmpted to desegregate the military but was met with much institutional resistance


George C. Wallace

Alabama Circuit court judge who ran for Governor against John Patterson as a racial moderate but was beaten decisively. Afterwords he became a raging segregationist in order to win white support.


Booker T. Washington

Founder of the Tuskegee Institute. He argued that blacks must advance themselves in separation before they would be broadly excepted. He was seen as many as an appeaser and was at odds with De Bois


Ben West

Mayor of Nashville during the Sit-ins. He told Dianne Nash he supported blacks in the sit-ins.


Roy Wilkins

President of the NAACP from 1955-77. He was criticized for being too cautious and anti-communist by many grassroots activists


Robert Williams

Black Nationalist leader, president of Monroe, NC NAACP and author of Negros with Guns which argued for violent self defense as supposed to nonviolent protest.


Alex Wilson

Black reporter who was hit by a brick by the mob at Little Rock


Mose Wright

Emmett Till's uncle and a witness to the abduction. When two men were accused of the crime, Wright chose to be a witness at the trial and personally identified the two white defendants. At the time, observers at the trial could not recall another example of a black man testifying against a white defendant.


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)



Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters

First Labor Union founded and led by blacks. It was founded by A. Philip Randolph and E. D. Nixon was a member.


Montgomery Improvement Association



Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)



Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

Let the people decide


Ku Klux Klan

Working class white supremacist group that utilized violence to terrorize Civil Rights leaders. Earlier manifestations of the Klan were more concerned with Jews and Catholics than they were Blacks.


White Citizens’ Councils

Upper Class white supremacist group that was referred to as the Country Club Klan. It tended to utilize more passive resistance and was referred to as the Iron Fist in the velvet glove.


Thirteenth Amendment

Abolishing slavery ratified (December,1865)


Fourteenth Amendment

Protecting civil rights from state interference ratified(1868)


Fifteenth Amendment

ratified prohibiting denial of the right to vote on the grounds of race or previous condition of servitude (1870)


Plessy v. Ferguson

(1896) Seperate but equal


de jure vs. de facto segregation

De jure = by law

De facto = by customs


4 Pillars of white supremacy

1) economic marginalization through sharecropping, crop lien system, farm tenancy;
2) Jim Crow segregation: the profusion of White and Colored signs [leads to Plessy, 1896];
3) disfranchisement;
4) violence (lynching, mob violence, etc.)


Double Victory

A Philip Randolph. Fascism abroad and racism at home


Jim Bevel

Theologian and Leader of the Nashville sit-ins