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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (42):
1

Hippocrates

"On Air, Water, and Places"

A Greek Philosopher

a physician in the 5th century who displayed an extraordinary awareness on the impact of environment and behavior on personal well-being.

He identified forces that epidemiologist today recognize as major determinants of human health.

He overlooked the importance of quantification.

2

Who is the father of Medicine and Epidemiology

Hippocrates

3

John Graunt

"Observations...Upon the Bill of Mortality"

An Englishman in the 17th century who introduced quantification of health data.

He noted that biological phenomena such as births and deaths, varied in predictable and regular ways.

4

Edward Jenner

Discovered vaccination in May of 1796

found a milkmaid name Sarah that had cowpox on her wrist. inoculated the lesions in young boy named James Phipps. Phipps became ill over the course of 9 days and on the 10 day was better.

5

Jon Snow

Was in English man in 1854 that determined the cholera deaths in London outbreak clustered around the Broadstreet pump.

6

What did John Snow Findings Prompt?

The removal of the pump handle and the suspected source was shut down. The Broad street pump outbreak subsided thereafter.

7

Who is the father of Epidemiology?

John Snow

8

William Farr

A leader in developing health and vital statistics records for the office of the British registrar General .

9

What is the Definition of Surveillance

The continued watchfulness over the distribution and trends of incidence through the systematic collection, consolidation and evaluation of morbidity and mortality reports and other relevant data, and the regular dissemination of data to all who need to know.

10

Public health Definition of Surveillance?

Is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of outcome specific data, closely integrated with timely dissemination of these data to those who responsible for preventing and controlling disease or injury.

11

Ignaz Semmeiweis

Improved nosocrnia spital hopsital hygiene practice in the maternity ward at the General Hospital in Vienna.

12

Who is the father of HH?

Ignaz Semmeiweis

13

Louis Pasteur

Although he did not propose the germ theory. He developed it and conducted experiments that clearly indicated it correctness and managed to convince Europe it was true.

He discovered: Cholera, Anthrax, and Rabies

14

Who is one of the Fathers of germ theory and bacteriology

Louis Pasteur

15

Sir Alexander Fleming

Was a Scottish biologist, botanist, and pharmacologist. he discovered the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mold Penicillum notatum in 1923.

16

Who contributed to Disease control through therapy of treatment?

Sir Alexander Fleming

17

Definition of epidemiology (john last)

is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems.

18

What is an Epidemiologist?

An investigator who studies the occurrence of disease or other health related conditions or events in defined populations. The control of disease in population is often considered to be a task for the epidemiologist.

19

Definition of an Epidemic

An increase in the number of cases over past experience for a given population, time, and place.

Surveillance is needed in order to define an epidemic.

20

What is used in Epi to show the distribution of cases in an outbreak?

Epidemic Curve

21

What is a "Recipe" for an Epidemic?

Increased amount of pathogen, agent, or toxic material

Exposed and susceptible persons

Common circumstances which lead to occurrence of an epidemic:
*Susceptible are introduced to an
endemic area

*A new pathogen is introduced

*Changes in behavioral, sexual or
cultural practices

*Host altered by drug-induced
immunosuppression or nutrition



22

Steps in Epidemic investigation

*Establish existence
*Verify diagnosis
*Define and identify cases
*Describe Person, Place, and Time
*Develop and Test hypothesis
*Implement Control

23

Outbreak Investigation

1. Define the Epidemic

2. Examine the distribution of cases

3. Look for the combination (interactions)
of relevant variables.

4. Develop Hypothesis

5. Test Hypothesis

6. Recommend control measures

24

Outbreak Investigation (Define the Epidemic)

1. Define the epidemic
A) Define the numerator (cases)
1. Clinical features: is the disease
Known?
2. What are it's serologic or cultural
aspects?
3. Are the causes partially understood?

B) Define the "denominator": what are the populations at risk of developing disease?

C) Calculate attack risks

25

Outbreak Investigation (steps 2 and 3)

2. Examine the distribution of cases by the following:

A) Time
B) Place

*look for time-place interactions

3. Look for combination of relevant variables

26

Outbreak Investigation (Step 4)

4. Develop hypothesis based on the following:

A) Existing knowledge (if any) of the
disease.
B) Analogy to disease of known etiology

27

Outbreak Investigation (Step 5)

5. Test Hypothesis:

A) Further analyze existing data (case
control studies)
B) Collect additional data

28

Outbreak Investigation (Step 6)

6. Recommend control measures

A) Control of present outbreak
B) Prevention of similar outbreaks

29

What makes up the Epidemiologic Triads?

Host, Agent, and Environment

all three must exist for disease occurrence.

30

Uses of epidemiology

1.Establish Causation

2. Study the natural history of a disease

3. Describe the health status of a
population

4. Evaluate the impact of interventions to prevent disease or injury in a population

5. Evaluate the impact of treatment on groups of patients.

31

Epidemiology use: Causation

How genetic and environmental factors can adversely influence people in good health and lead to poor health.

32

Epidemiology use: Natural History

The person in good health experiences increasing severity of changes in bodily function until clinical disease has developed.

In the case of physical injury these changes usually occur rapidly. finally the disease or injury may lead to death. or alternatively, recovery due to the body's natural healing mechanism or as a result of treatment

33

Epidemiology use: Health Status

Describes the health of a population; what proportion is health, how health status changes over time, the occurrence of disease in different geographic areas, etc

*proportion over time changes with heath.


34

Epidemiology use: Evaluate

*Evaluate the impact of interventions to prevent disease and injury in a population.

*Evaluate the impact of treatment on groups of patients. in the case the measurements focus on modifications of the ways in which good health becomes ill health or vice versa.

35

What is the Miasma Theory?

It is a theory that contributed disease and illness to stinky air or pollution.

36

Who is recognized as the father of Biostatistics?

John Graunt

37

Who was the 1st person to come up with disease control through prevention?

Edward Jenner

38

Who was the first person to put into practice and principles of Epidemiological practice? What are these principles and practices?

John Snow

The practice and principles of Epidemiological practices are:

1. Distribution of disease occurrence.

2. Determination of disease etiology

3. Control of disease occurrence.

39

Describe the Epidemiological practices that snow utilized during the cholera outbreak?

1. Distribution- Snow went house to house to identify cases of cholera.

2. Etiology- Snow analyzed the distribution and recognized that those affected lived in an area around the Broadstreet pump.

3. Control- disease control occurred through the removal of the pump handle.

40

Who showed how vital statistics can be used for surveillance?

William Farr

41

Whose contribution was disease control through prevention?

Louis Pasteur

42

Sir Richard Doll

was the first person to study chronic diseases after the decline of infectious diseases.