Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (45):
What is diastole?
The relaxation phase (62%)
What is Systole?
The contraction phase (38%)
What is cardiac output?
Total volume of blood pumped by the ventricles every minute.
How do you calculate cardiac output?
Qሶ = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
What is stroke volume?
The amount of blood ejected by the ventricles per beat
How do you calculate stroke volume?
SV = cardiac output(Q)/HEART RATE(HR)
What is the Ejection Fraction?
The fraction of blood pumped out by the LV, in relation to the pre-contraction volume
How do you calculate ejection fraction?
EF = SV / EDV
What 3 factors effect cardiac output?
What is the preload stage?
The stretch of the cardiac muscle fibres.
What is the Contractility stage?
The strength of the contraction at a given preload.
What is the afterload stage?
The flow resistance pressure that must be overcome the cause the aortic / semilunar valve to open.
What is the fick principle?
Oxygen consumption is dependant on blood flow to that tissue and the amount of oxygen extracted from the blood by the tissue
What is vo2 max limited by?
cardiovascular oxygen transport
What are 2 limiting factors of vo2 max?
Qሶ(cardiac output) and SV
What does Systemic vascular conductance directly increase in proportion to?
Vo2max and Qሶ
how does stroke volume increase performance?
Intrinsic contractile properties
- Decreasing ESV
- Increasing EF
Extra myocardial adaptations
- Increasing Preload
what cardiac dimensions affect stroke volume?
Dimensional changes can develop within weeks.
+ 10% internal LV end
= 33% LV volume
What percentage of cardiac output caused changes in vo2max for older and youinger?
What percentage of cardiac output caused changes in maximal arterial-venous difference for older and youinger?
training studies in older people between 6-12 months found what?
improvements in vo2 max ranging from 15-29%
training studies in older people between 9-12 weeks found what?
improved vo2max by 9-18%
what indicated the highest improvement to vo2 max in older men after 9-12 months?
cardiac output and stroke volume
how was vo2 max defined?
the highest vo2 observed for an average of 20 consecutive seconds during either the ramp test to exhaustion or the 2-3 min constant load at 85%.
during the first 10 weeks, what did each session inhale?
continuous training for 45 mins at a PO that elicted 70% of the vo2 max obseved during the ramp test.
what happened in the final 2 weeks?
hit training was used performing 10-12 exercise bouts each lasting 1 minute at 90-100% of the po peak
when was vo2 likely to plateau?
after 8 weeks of continuous training
after how many breaths was the test stopped?
how do you caluclate a-vo2 differnce?
In what age group was training PO higher?
always higher in younger.
the estimated energy expenditure was how much lower in HIT compared to continuous training.
at what week did an increase in vo2 max appear?
week 3 for both younger and older.
what is the percentage change in vo2 max from pre-training to post training in older aged?
what is the percentage change in vo2 max from pre-training to post training in younger aged?
what was the mean slope of change in vo2 max?
0.16 and 0.13 l/min every third week in both groups
did anything change in the lactate concentration?
nope it was unchanged
was heart rate max affected?
nope it was unaffected by training
how was qmax(cardiac output max) affected?
young and older increased after 3 weeks as well as 9 weeks.
what happened to SVmax?
it increased significantly in both groups after 3 weeks. Additional improvements were observed in week 9
what happened to maximal a-vo2diff?
higher in weeks 3 and 6 compared to with pretraining in o and y
in the 0 when did increases occur?
1 third of the increase occurred during the first 3 weeks.
while the remaining 2 thirds occurred during week 3/end
what was the proportion of increase in 0?
qmax= 2/3 max a-vo2diff-1/3
56% of the change in vo2 max for group y was attributed by what?
higher qmax and 44%to a-vo2 diff
in the y when did increases occur?
2/3 of increase to vo2 max occurred in first 3 weeks