Flashcards in Test 2 (Lecture) Deck (23):
What are The 4 components of respiration?
Transport (Respiratory gases)
What muscles contribute to inhalation and too what percentage?
External intercostals 25%
What happens to your chest and diaphragm when breathing in?
What happens to your chest and diaphragm when breathing out?
What is compliance dependent on?
The elasticity of lung tissue and the thoracic cavity.
Reduced by any factor which, reduces the resilience of the lungs eg fibrosis).
What is compliance?
The ease with which they can be expanded
What are the four clinical measures of lung function?
What is FEV1.0?
The volume of air expelled in the first second of maximal forced expiration from a position of full inspiration
What is peak expiratory flow (PEF)?
The maximal expiratory flow rate achieved and this occurs very early in the forced expiratory manoeuvre.
What is intrinsic lung diseases or diseases of the lung parenchyma?
Inflammation or scarring of the lung tissue (interstitial lung disease) or result in filling of the air spaces with exudate and debris (pneumonitis).
What is extrinsic disorders or extra parenchymal diseases?
The chest wall, pleura, and respiratory muscles are the components of the respiratory pump, and they need to function normally for effective ventilation.
What is Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?
A group of illnesses characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible.
The term COPD includes the conditions emphysema and chronic bronchitis
What is EIB?
Transient, reversible bronchoconstriction that happens during or after strenuous exercise
What are the two inspiratory muscles?
External intercostal muscles
At rest what % is breathing?
2-4% of resting energy expenditure
During max what % is breathing?
Up to 15% during maximal exercise
During inspiration what does the thoracic do?
Thoracic dimensions expand
During inspiration what does the volume and pressure do?
Volume increases pressure decreases air moves into the lungs
What muscles can help assist lifting the rib cage during inhalation?
If a lung has high compliance what can happen?
Easy to distend
What is the thermal theory?
Rapid re-warming of airway
Vascular leakage and edema
What is the osmotic theory?
Cell volume changes
Smooth muscle contraction