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Flashcards in Test 2 (Lecture) Deck (23):
1

What are The 4 components of respiration?

Ventilation (Pulmonary)

Respiration (External)

Respiration (Internal)

Transport (Respiratory gases)

2

What muscles contribute to inhalation and too what percentage?

Diaphragm 75%

External intercostals 25%

3

What happens to your chest and diaphragm when breathing in?

Chest expands

Diaphragm contracts

4

What happens to your chest and diaphragm when breathing out?

Chest contracts

Diaphragm relaxes

5

What is compliance dependent on?

The elasticity of lung tissue and the thoracic cavity.

Reduced by any factor which, reduces the resilience of the lungs eg fibrosis).

6

What is compliance?

The ease with which they can be expanded

7

What are the four clinical measures of lung function?

Spirometry
Volume
Flow rate
Pressure

8

What is FEV1.0?

The volume of air expelled in the first second of maximal forced expiration from a position of full inspiration

9

What is peak expiratory flow (PEF)?

The maximal expiratory flow rate achieved and this occurs very early in the forced expiratory manoeuvre.

10

What is intrinsic lung diseases or diseases of the lung parenchyma?

Inflammation or scarring of the lung tissue (interstitial lung disease) or result in filling of the air spaces with exudate and debris (pneumonitis).

11

What is extrinsic disorders or extra parenchymal diseases?

The chest wall, pleura, and respiratory muscles are the components of the respiratory pump, and they need to function normally for effective ventilation.

12

What is Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

A group of illnesses characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible.

The term COPD includes the conditions emphysema and chronic bronchitis

13

What is EIB?

Transient, reversible bronchoconstriction that happens during or after strenuous exercise

14

What are the two inspiratory muscles?

Diaphragm

External intercostal muscles

15

At rest what % is breathing?

2-4% of resting energy expenditure

16

During max what % is breathing?

Up to 15% during maximal exercise

17

During inspiration what does the thoracic do?

Thoracic dimensions expand

18

During inspiration what does the volume and pressure do?

Volume increases pressure decreases air moves into the lungs

19

What muscles can help assist lifting the rib cage during inhalation?

Sternocleidomastoid
Serratus anterior
Scaline muscles
Pectoralis minor

20

If a lung has high compliance what can happen?

Easy to distend

21

What is the thermal theory?

Muscle cooling

Vasoconstriction

Rapid re-warming of airway

Vascular leakage and edema

22

What is the osmotic theory?

Mucosal dehydration

Increased osmolarity

Cell volume changes

Mediators released

Smooth muscle contraction

23

When does EIB usually occur and resolve?

After exercise 5-15 mins and resolves with 20-60 minutes post exercise