Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (34):
Where is the fire extinguisher?
Out the side door - past the beverage cart by the stairwell.
What are the seven bacterial cell shapes and arrangements?
Diplo - Strepto - Staphlo - Bacilli - Coccus - Spriochetes - Spirilum
What are the cell shape and arrangements of yeasts?
Yeasts are oval shaped and have either no arrangement or pseudohypae
Are yeasts much bigger than bacteria?
What do yeasts have in their cell walls?
chitan in wall
What is the significance of yeasts having chitan in their cell wall?
gram stain does not apply and won't work
What is an example of a gram positive cell envelope?
What is an example of a gram negative cell envelope?
What is an example of an acid fast cell envelope?
What is an example of an Endo spore former and capsule former?
We use acid fast on what type of bacteria?
When performing acid fast stains - what is used for the primary stain?
For acid fast stains - instead of regular alcohol we use what?
Is heat involved with acid fast staining?
Yes - after the acid alcohol and before the counterstain - we use heat
For acid fast stains - what is used as the counterstain?
Why do we call it acid fast?
Because we use acid ALCOHOL to break down the cell wall to drive the dye in.
What happens if we use acid alcohol on a gram stain instead of ethyl alcholy (the normal decolorizer)?
The acid alcohol is more powerful - so it will completely decolorize the purple out - so with the counterstain - you'll end up with pink for your gram positive.
What is the fundamental difference of acid fast cell envelopes?
It contains the waxy cell wall made of mycolic acid
What is a medically significant acid fast cell?
What are the components of the SPORE STAIN and their function in the staining process?
Primary stain is malachite green and Counter stain is safranin
What are the three ways spores are relevant in bacterial survival in the environment?
Spores helps the species to survive by: 1. protects against drying out 2. acts as food reserve because long chain sugars can be eaten 3. protects against radiation
What is the relevance of spores in infection?
Easy for them to survive.
Why is it easy for spores to survive in your body?
If they are in your body - it's hard to kill them because you'd have to heat the body up so high - it would destruct the body.
What is the relevance of spores in microbiology laboratory sterility?
Hard to kill spores if they get into the lab. We use them to test the autoclave
What are the components of capsule stain and their function in the process?
India ink is a component - It is a simple stain and a negative stain
What is the relevance of capsules in infection (not environment)?
Renders phagocytosis ineffective
What are the effects of the temperature going up on cell function?
It the temp goes up - the enzymes denature
What are the effects of the temperature going down on cell function?
If the temp goes down - they can't reach the ACTIVATION ENERGY (they can't do the things they need to do)
What temperature do Thermophiles like?
What temperature do Pschyophiles like?
What temperature do Mesophiles like?
Thermophiles heat range
20 C to 70 C - ideal is 50 C
Psychrophiles heat range
go 0 C to 20 C - ideal is 15 C or lower