Flashcards in Test 1 Circulatory Pathway Deck (59):
Function of erythrocytes
(Red Blood Cells) carry oxygen
Function of platelets
(Thrombocytes) blood clotting
Function of Lymphocytes
T lymphocyte-cell immunity
B lymphocyte-humoral immunity
Function of monocyte
(Agranular leukocyte) phagocytic, precursor to macrophages
Function of neutrophil
(polymorphonuclear leukocytes) phagocytic-kill bacteria
light colored granules
Function of basophil
(base loving) histamine (allergies), heparin (blood thinner)
Contains purple granules
Function of Eosinophils
(acid loving) Fight parasitic worms
Contains red granules
Average Blood Volume
Males: 45% (+/-7%)
Females: 42% (+/- 5%)
Normal Red Blood Count
Males: 5.0x10 mm
Females: 4.8x10 mm
Difference between anemia and polycemia
Low hemotocrit values may indicate anemia while hight values may indicate polycthemia
Structure of protein hemoglobin
Four polypeptide chaines (2 alpha-a chains & 2 beta chains), each containing a heme unit.
Iron binds in the middle of each heme group.
Life Span of Erythrocytes
Recycling of RBC
Macrophage cells phagocytose RBCs, breaking down hemoglobin. Iron is returned to bone marrow for production of new hemoglobin, bilirubin is transported to the liver, where it is excreted into the intestine as bile.
What hormone is produced by the liver and kidney to control erythropoiesis?
What is the immediate precursor to erythrocyte?
Order of abundance (high to low) of the 5 types of WBC?
Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil
What determines blood type?
Antigens on the surface of RBCs
Type O receives O (universal donor)
Type A receives A & O
Type B receives B & O
Type AB (universal recipient) receives O, A, B, AB
What conditions lead to erythroblastosis fetalis?
Rh- mother pregnant with an Rh+ baby
What ion is needed for blood clotting?
Differences in intrinsic and extrinsic (Stage 1) clotting mechanism
Extrinsic-trauma which leads to tissue damage
Intrinsic-damage to the interior of blood vessels
Stage 2 Blood Clotting Mechanism
Prothrombin is converted to thrombin with the aid of prothrombinase
Stage 3 Blood Clotting Mechanism
Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin with the aid of thrombin
Structure of pericardium
*Fibrous pericardium-outside of pericardium sac
*Inner portion which is the serous pericardium
*Pericardium Cavity-contains a serous fluid
*Visceral Pericardium-innermost part of the pericardium, aka epicardium
Layers of the heart
*Epicardium-outer layer, connective tissue
*Myocardium-middle layer, cardiac muscle tissue
Four chambers of heart
Left atrium, right atrium, left ventricle, right ventricle
Four valves of the heart
*Tricuspid, between r atrium & r ventricle
*Biscuspid,between L atrium & L ventricle
*Pulmonary SL Valve, between r ventricle & pulmonary trunk
*Aorta SL Valve, between the L ventricle & aorta arch
4 Groups of blood vessels that bring blood to and away from heart
*Superior and Inferior Vena Cava-bring blood to the R atrium
*Pulmonary Trunk-leads out of the R ventricle
*Pulmonary Veins-Comes from the lungs and goes to the left atrium
*Aorta-Blood comes from the L ventricle & goes to the Aorta Arch
Blood vessels for coronary circulation
Right and Left Coronary Arteries
Structures of the Conduction System of the Heart
*Sinoatrial Node (S-A node)-pacemaker
*Atrioventricular Node (A-V node)
*AV Bundle (Bundle of His)
Nerves that go to the pacemaker of the heart
Sympathetic fibers-superior, middle, & inferior cardiac nerves
Layers of tissue in walls of blood vessels
-Outermost layer, connective tissue, in veins it is the thickest layer
-2 layers: smooth muscle layer (receives nerves),which is thicker in arteries & elastic tissue
-Endothelium cells, veins have valves; arteries do not
Resistance vessels, smallest arteries, important in regulating blood flow to end organs
small veins, precapillary sphincter muscles
3 major blood vessels that come off the aorta arch
Brachiocephalic, Left Common Carotid, Left Subclavian
Blood vessels that branch off the thoracic aorta (4)
Bronchial, Esophageal, Intercostal, Superior Phrenic
Blood vessels that branch off the abdominal aorta (9)
Celiac, Superior Messenteric, Suprarenal, Renal, Gonadal, Inferior Messenteric, Common Iliac, External Iliac, Internal Iliac
Blood vessels of the arm
Axillary, Brachial, Radial, Ulnar, Digital
Blood vessels of the leg
External Iliac, Femoral, Popliteal, Anterior Tibial, Posterior Tibial, Digital
What factors influence the heart rate?
*Anxiety, fear-heart rate increases
*Exercise-heart rate increases
*epinephrine (hormone)-heart rate increases
*hot receptors are stimulated-heart rate increases
*Grief-heart rate decreases
Normal blood pressure
Definition of diastole & systole
Diastole-relaxation of the heart
Systole-contraction of the heart
What occurs during heart sounds (lub/dub)?
*Lub-sound of A-V valves closing, start of systolic
*Dub-sound of SL valves closing
Formula for Cardiac Output
CO=Stroke Volume(sv) X Heart Rate (HR)
Factors that increase Cardiac Output?
*Increases in HR
*Increases in SV
*Increases in Cardiac Output and peripheral resistance tend to make blood pressure higher
What is the Starling Law?
The greater the strength of the heart (large volume), the greater the strength of contraction (within limits).
What factors increase viscosity of blood?
*Increased protein in the plasma
*Increased number of RBC (hematocrit)
*Increased viscosity increases peripheral resistance
How is venous blood returned to the heart?
*Decreased thoracic pressure (during inspiration)
*Increased thoracic pressure (during expiration)
*Pushes blood in central veins into heart
*deeper respirations increase venous return to heart
Five hormones that affect the heart
*Aldosterone, Angiotensin I & II, ADH, Rennin - increase blood pressure
*ANH - decreases blood pressure
More blood returns to the heart causing an increase in CO
less blood returns to the heart causing a decrease in CO