Test 1 Circulatory Pathway Flashcards Preview

A&P II > Test 1 Circulatory Pathway > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1 Circulatory Pathway Deck (59):
1

Plasma

*fluid
*electrolytes
*proteins
*clotting factors
*gases

2

Serum

*fluid
*electrolytes
*proteins
*gases

3

Function of erythrocytes

(Red Blood Cells) carry oxygen

4

Function of platelets

(Thrombocytes) blood clotting

5

Function of Lymphocytes

(Agranular leukocyte)
T lymphocyte-cell immunity
B lymphocyte-humoral immunity

6

Function of monocyte

(Agranular leukocyte) phagocytic, precursor to macrophages

7

Function of neutrophil

(polymorphonuclear leukocytes) phagocytic-kill bacteria
light colored granules

8

Function of basophil

(base loving) histamine (allergies), heparin (blood thinner)
Contains purple granules

9

Function of Eosinophils

(acid loving) Fight parasitic worms
Contains red granules

10

Average Blood Volume

5 liters

11

Normal hemotocrit

Males: 45% (+/-7%)
Females: 42% (+/- 5%)

12

Normal Red Blood Count

Males: 5.0x10[6] mm[3]
Females: 4.8x10[6] mm[3]

13

Difference between anemia and polycemia

Low hemotocrit values may indicate anemia while hight values may indicate polycthemia

14

Structure of protein hemoglobin

Four polypeptide chaines (2 alpha-a chains & 2 beta chains), each containing a heme unit.
Iron binds in the middle of each heme group.

15

Life Span of Erythrocytes

105-120 days

16

Recycling of RBC

Macrophage cells phagocytose RBCs, breaking down hemoglobin. Iron is returned to bone marrow for production of new hemoglobin, bilirubin is transported to the liver, where it is excreted into the intestine as bile.

17

What hormone is produced by the liver and kidney to control erythropoiesis?

Erythropoietin

18

What is the immediate precursor to erythrocyte?

Reticulocytes

19

Normal WBC

4,500-10,000 WBC/microliter

20

Order of abundance (high to low) of the 5 types of WBC?

Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil

21

What determines blood type?

Antigens on the surface of RBCs

22

Transfusion Reactions

Type O receives O (universal donor)
Type A receives A & O
Type B receives B & O
Type AB (universal recipient) receives O, A, B, AB

23

What conditions lead to erythroblastosis fetalis?

Rh- mother pregnant with an Rh+ baby

24

What ion is needed for blood clotting?

Ca[2+]

25

Differences in intrinsic and extrinsic (Stage 1) clotting mechanism

Extrinsic-trauma which leads to tissue damage
Intrinsic-damage to the interior of blood vessels

26

Stage 2 Blood Clotting Mechanism

Prothrombin is converted to thrombin with the aid of prothrombinase

27

Stage 3 Blood Clotting Mechanism

Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin with the aid of thrombin

28

Structure of pericardium

*Fibrous pericardium-outside of pericardium sac
*Inner portion which is the serous pericardium
*Pericardium Cavity-contains a serous fluid
*Visceral Pericardium-innermost part of the pericardium, aka epicardium

29

Layers of the heart

*Epicardium-outer layer, connective tissue
*Myocardium-middle layer, cardiac muscle tissue
*Endocardium-Endothelium, trabeculae

30

Four chambers of heart

Left atrium, right atrium, left ventricle, right ventricle

31

Four valves of the heart

A-V VALVES
*Tricuspid, between r atrium & r ventricle
*Biscuspid,between L atrium & L ventricle
SEMILUNAR VALVES
*Pulmonary SL Valve, between r ventricle & pulmonary trunk
*Aorta SL Valve, between the L ventricle & aorta arch

32

4 Groups of blood vessels that bring blood to and away from heart

*Superior and Inferior Vena Cava-bring blood to the R atrium
*Pulmonary Trunk-leads out of the R ventricle
*Pulmonary Veins-Comes from the lungs and goes to the left atrium
*Aorta-Blood comes from the L ventricle & goes to the Aorta Arch

33

Blood vessels for coronary circulation

Right and Left Coronary Arteries

34

Structures of the Conduction System of the Heart

*Sinoatrial Node (S-A node)-pacemaker
*Atrioventricular Node (A-V node)
*AV Bundle (Bundle of His)
*Purkinje Fibers

35

Nerves that go to the pacemaker of the heart

Sympathetic fibers-superior, middle, & inferior cardiac nerves

36

Layers of tissue in walls of blood vessels

*Tunica Adventitia
-Outermost layer, connective tissue, in veins it is the thickest layer
*Tunica Media
-2 layers: smooth muscle layer (receives nerves),which is thicker in arteries & elastic tissue
*Tunica Intima
-Endothelium cells, veins have valves; arteries do not

37

Arteriole

Resistance vessels, smallest arteries, important in regulating blood flow to end organs

38

Venules

small veins, precapillary sphincter muscles

39

3 major blood vessels that come off the aorta arch

Brachiocephalic, Left Common Carotid, Left Subclavian

40

Blood vessels that branch off the thoracic aorta (4)

Bronchial, Esophageal, Intercostal, Superior Phrenic

41

Blood vessels that branch off the abdominal aorta (9)

Celiac, Superior Messenteric, Suprarenal, Renal, Gonadal, Inferior Messenteric, Common Iliac, External Iliac, Internal Iliac

42

Blood vessels of the arm

Axillary, Brachial, Radial, Ulnar, Digital

43

Blood vessels of the leg

External Iliac, Femoral, Popliteal, Anterior Tibial, Posterior Tibial, Digital

44

P Wave

Atrial depolarization

45

QRS Complex

Ventricular depolarization

46

T Wave

Ventricular repolarization

47

What factors influence the heart rate?

*Anxiety, fear-heart rate increases
*Exercise-heart rate increases
*epinephrine (hormone)-heart rate increases
*hot receptors are stimulated-heart rate increases
*Grief-heart rate decreases

48

Normal blood pressure

120/80

49

Definition of diastole & systole

Diastole-relaxation of the heart
Systole-contraction of the heart

50

What occurs during heart sounds (lub/dub)?

*Lub-sound of A-V valves closing, start of systolic
*Dub-sound of SL valves closing

51

Formula for Cardiac Output

CO=Stroke Volume(sv) X Heart Rate (HR)

52

Factors that increase Cardiac Output?

*Increases in HR
*Increases in SV
*Increases in Cardiac Output and peripheral resistance tend to make blood pressure higher

53

What is the Starling Law?

The greater the strength of the heart (large volume), the greater the strength of contraction (within limits).

54

What factors increase viscosity of blood?

*Increased protein in the plasma
*Increased number of RBC (hematocrit)
*Increased viscosity increases peripheral resistance

55

How is venous blood returned to the heart?

*Respiratory pump
*Decreased thoracic pressure (during inspiration)
*Increased thoracic pressure (during expiration)
*Pushes blood in central veins into heart
*deeper respirations increase venous return to heart

56

Five hormones that affect the heart

*Aldosterone, Angiotensin I & II, ADH, Rennin - increase blood pressure
*ANH - decreases blood pressure

57

Vasoconstriction

More blood returns to the heart causing an increase in CO

58

Vasodilation

less blood returns to the heart causing a decrease in CO

59

Examples of Pulse Points

Radial, Carotid, Femoral, Brachial