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Flashcards in Test 1 Lab Values Deck (119):
0

RBC Male

4.5-5.9 x10^6 cell/microL

1

RBC Female

4.1-5.1 x10^6 cell/microL

2

Hgb male

14-17.5 g/dL

3

Hgb female

12.3-15.3 g/dL

4

Hct male

42-50%

5

Hct female

36-45%

6

MCV

80-96 fL/cell

7

WBC

4.4- 11.3 x10^3 cells/microL

8

Plt

140-440 x10^3 cell/microL

9

Normal INR

0.9-1.1

10

Normal aPTT

21-45 sec

11

INR with therapy

2-3

12

aPTT with therapy

1.5-2.5 times control

13

Neutrophils

45-73%

14

Bands

3-5%

15

Lymph

20-40%

16

Monocytes

2-8 %

17

Eosinophils

0-4%

18

Basophils

0-1%

19

ANC Equation

ANC=10xWBCx (%bands+%segs)

20

Normal FPG

<100

21

Pre-diabetes FPG

100-125

22

Diabetes FPG

>126

23

2-hr post prandial glucose diagnostic of diabetes

>200

24

Self monitoring whole blood glucose

80-120
Bedtime: 100-140

25

Self monitoring plasma glucose

90-130
Bedtime 110-140

26

A1c normal

4-5.6%

27

Pre diabetes

FPG 100-125
2 hr post prandial 140-199
A1c 5.7-6.4%

28

Diabetes

FPG >126
2 hr post prandial >200
A1c >6.4%
Random plasma glucose >200

29

Green

Well controlled
>80% of best PEFR

30

Yellow

Symptomatic
50-80% of best PEFR

31

Red

Worsened symptoms
No relief from meds
<50% of best PEFR

32

FEV1/FVC normal

>70%

33

FEV1/FVC COPD

<70%

34

FEV1 normal

>80%

35

FEV1 abnormal/obstruction

<80%

36

COPD Severity ranges

FEV1
Mild >80%
Moderate 50-80%
Severe 30-50%
Very severe <30%

37

SCr

0.6-1.2 mg/dL

38

BUN

8-23 mg/dL

39

BUN/SCr indicative if decreased renal perfusion & dehydration

>20:1

40

BUN/SCr indicative of intrinsic kidney damage

10:1-20:1

41

Hypovolemic due to

Extrarenal loses: GI, skin, lungs
Renal losses, Diuretics, adrenal insufficiency

42

Hypervolemic due to

CHF
Cirrhosis
Nephrosis

43

Euvolemic due to

Exclude hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, renal failure, SIADH

Primary polydipsia, low solute intake

44

Hypovolemia clinical signs

BP drops, HR goes up, dry mucus membranes, decreased capillary refill, decreased blood volume
FENaNa retention

45

Euvolemia clinical signs

Normal blood volume

46

Hypervolemis clinical signs

Increase blood volume, edema, elevated JVD

47

Na

135-145 mEq/L

48

K

3.5-4.5 mEq/L

49

Cl

95-103 mEq/L

50

Drugs that increase ADH

Carbamazepine, chlorpropamide, oxcabaxepine -> syndrome if inappropriate anti diuretic hormone (SIADH)

51

Peaked T waves

#hyperkalemia

52

Loop diuretics are notorious for causing:

Hypokalemia

53

TSH

0.5-5.0 milliunits/L

54

Anti thyroid antibodies positive of hashimotos or graves

>1:1000

55

ACTH <5

ACTH independent

56

ACTH 5-10

Need CRH test

57

ACTH >10

ACTH dependent

58

Primary hypothyroidism

Failure of thyroid to produce TH

59

Secondary hypothyroidism

Failure if anterior pituitary to secrete TSH

60

Tertiary hypothyroidism

Failure if hypothalamus to produce TRH

61

Free T4 test

Represents level of hormone available for uptake.
Used in conjunction with TSH

62

Total t4 test

Influenced by concentration if binding affinity of thyroid binding protein.
Initial screening
Definite diagnosis of thyroid failure with TSH

63

Total T3 test

Primarily used as an indicator of hyperthyroidism.
Not reliable for hypo.
TBP influences measurement
Diagnose hyper/ severity of hyper

64

TSH test

Usually first indicator of thyroid failure.
Used to adjust dosage.
Wait 6-8 weeks
Identifies problem with pituitary

65

TRH test

Measures ability if exogenous TRH. To stimulate pituitary release TSH.
TRH given IV.
Differentiate secondary from tertiary

66

Decreased cortisol

Addison's

67

Increased cortisol

Cushings

68

Facial plethora

Moon face

69

24 hour urine cortisol

Most specific
Best for screening
Requires serial testing for confirmation

70

Salivary cortisol

Good sensitivity
Home test performed at midnight

71

Dexamethasone suppression test

Test for cortisol issues.
Fasting cortisol is drawn

72

Mg

1.3-2.1 mEq/L

73

Ca

9.2-11 mg/dL

74

Phosphate

2.3-4.7 mg/dL

75

Torsades

#hypomagnesemia

76

Amphotericin B causes

Hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia

77

PTH

Increase serum Ca
Decrease serum phosphate

78

Vitamin D

Increase serum Ca
Increase phosphate

79

Calcitonin

Decease Ca
Decease phosphate.

80

Chvostek's and Trousseau's sign

Signs of hypocalcemia

81

Primary volatile acid in the body

CO2

82

Primary base (and buffer)

Bicarbonate

83

What regulates bicarbonate?

Kidneys

84

What regulates PaCO2?

Lungs!

85

Excretion rate of CO2 is dependent on:

Respiration rate & tidal volume

86

Carbonic acid

Respiratory

87

Bicarbonate

Metabolic

88

Metabolic acidosis

Deficit of bicarbonate

89

Metabolic alkalosis

Excess bicarbonate

90

Respiratory acidosis

Excess CO2; lungs fail to excrete CO2

91

Respiratory alkalosis

Deficit of CO2; lungs excrete too much CO2

92

Metabolic

PH & PaCO2 saME direction

93

Respiratory

Ph and PaCO2 diffERent directions

94

Anion Gap calculation helps to:

Determine cause of metabolic acidosis

95

AG EQUATION

AG= Na -(Cl +HCO3-)

96

Normal AG

3-16 mEq/L

97

RBC

1-3/HPF

98

WBC

0-2/HPF

99

Protein

0-trace

100

Urine pH

4.6-8.0

101

Blood, glucose, ketones, leukocyte esterase, nitrite

Negative

102

Leukocyte esterase and nitrite in urine indicates

UTI

103

Ketones in urine indicates

Diabetes or starvation.

104

MCV>100

Macrolytic anemia
Caused by: b12 deficiency or folate deficiency

105

MCV 81-99

Normolytic anemia
Caused by: acute blood loss, hemolysis, chronic illness

106

MCV <80

Microlytic anemia
Caused by iron deficiency

107

ABG

pH/PaCO2/PaO2/HCO3-

108

pH for ABG

7.35-7.44

109

PaCO2

36-44 mmHg

110

PaO2

80-100 mmHg

111

HCO3- ABG

24-30 mmHg

112

CO2

24-30 mEq/L

113

Anion gap

3-16 mEq/L

114

Lactate

0.6-2.2 mEq/L

115

SvO2

>70 mmHg

116

O2 sat

>94%

117

Elevated AG

Mudpies

118

Non elevated AG

Used car