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Flashcards in Test 1 Spring Deck (34):
1

Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize which of the following?

diffusion

2

There has historically been a close relationship between the sciences of anatomy & physiology. This is reflected by which of the following statements discussed in class?

Function follows form"

3

The pancreas plays a major role in the maintenance of blood glucose levels by releasing hormones that alter circulating glucose levels. After a meal, the pancreas releases _____________ and this leads to a(n) ______________________ in circulating glucose concentration.

insulin; decrease

4

An example of a properly functioning homeostatic control system is seen when

the kidneys excrete salt into the urine when dietary salt levels rise

5

As discussed in lecture, what is considered THE central theme in physiology?

homeostasis

6

In your home heating system, which element is the EFFECTOR?

furnace

7

Being in positive energy balance implies that you

will gain weight

8

A sphincter muscle is

a ring of smooth muscles that can close an opening

9

Which of the following is the correct order for the passage of food through the ruminant digestive system?

rumen > reticulum > omasum > abomasum

10

Where does the vast majority of nutrient absorption occur in the digestion system of mammals?

duodenum

11

The storage area in an insect that houses the bacteria needed to break down plant materials is called the _____________________.

gastric cecum

12

Which of the following organisms uses intracellular digestion for the processing of nutrients?

sponge

13

An animal that migrates great distances would obtain the greatest benefit from storing its energy as:

fats

14

Which of the following vitamins would likely cause the most problems if taken in excess?

Vitamin D

15

Enzymatic hydrolysis is a key component in which stage of nutrient processing?

digestion

16

A well-trained athlete has a resting heart rate of only 60 beats/minute, a stroke volume of 100 mL and a respiratory rate of 20 breaths per minute. What is this person's cardiac output?

6000 mL

17

Which organism has a gastrovascular cavity?

jellyfish

18

In the lungs at the site of gas exchange, the PO2 is 104 mm Hg and PCO2 is 40 mm Hg. Based upon these numbers, what is the approximate concentration of these two gases that would be found in the left atrium? Best answer, please.

PO2 = 104 mm Hg; PCO2 = 40 mm Hg

19

Where would you NOT expect to see a one-way valve in the mammalian heart?

between the left and right ventricle

20

After leaving the capillary beds in the left lung, where does blood flow next?

left atrium

21

The sites of gas exchange within the lungs are the _______________.

alveoli

22

Blood is pumped into the aorta during what phase of the cardiac cycle?

ventricular systole

23

For the ECG (electrocardiogram) shown, which of the following parameters could be used to estimate the heart rate?

time from the start of one P wave to the start of the next P wave

24

To enhance diffusion (think Fick's Law of Diffusion), the surfaces over which gas diffusion occurs tend to be:

thin

25

An osmoconformer must live in which of the following environments?

sea water

26

After the Loop of Henle, where does the filtrate go next?

distal tubule

27

The stimulus for the release of vasopressin is _________________ and it causes the production of a ______________ urine.

high osmolarity; concentrated

28

A marine fish has which of the following osmoregulatory adaptations?

it drinks a lot and produces little urine

29

On the graph, one of the lines shown represents a STENOHALINE OSMOREGULATOR. Which line best represents this organism?
Osmo_osmoregulator4.png

E

30

You go to the doctor and she prescribes a diuretic for you to take. As a result of taking this drug, you will likely be urinating more frequently than before.

True

31

A fish living in the freshwater Bear Lake would have a greater number of juxtamedullary nephrons than one living in the Great Salt Lake.

False

32

Which of the following directly causes constriction of the afferent arteriole leading to the glomerulus?

angiotensin II

33

Where is the filtrate produced in the kidney?

in the Bowman's capsule

34

The primary force that drives the movement of fluid from the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule is:

blood pressure