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Flashcards in test review 2 Deck (17):
1

ISPD move permeable to

INHIBITORY (hyperpolarizing)
K+ channel
Cl- channel (most cells)

2

generate ap mv

characterized by the presence of a threshold – the minimum depolarization necessary
to generate an action potential (if VM > threshold  will get an AP!)

3

direction movement across ions

permeability to Na ions  VM moves toward ENa cell depolarizes  more active!
concentration gradient & charge

4

direction movement across ions

permeability to Na ions  VM moves toward ENa cell depolarizes  more active!
concentration gradient & charge

5

AP 1st Event

resting state
2. deporlaization

6

ligand gated

How do ion channels open?
1) changes in VM can cause the opening or
closing of voltage-gated ion channels
channels activated by chemicals (ligands)
• these ligand-gated ion channels open or close when
specific chemicals, like neurotransmitters, bind to a channel

7

threshold/detection pitch - what structure

How different frequencies (pitch) are detected
Basilar membrane: a critical characteristic
of this structure is that it is NOT uniform
over its 33 mm length.

8

photoransduction - dark current

(a) In the dark:
Rhodopsin is in inactive form
cGMP levels are high
Na+ and K+ channels are open (“dark current”)
Membrane potential is at –40 mV & transmitter is
being released

9

carry AP deep skeletal muscle

myosin head is bound to ATP

10

tympanic oval window by_____

Contains the three bones of the middle ear: the ossicle
: Malleus, incus and stapes
Tympanic membrane  [malleus  incus  stapes]  oval window

11

vertebrate responds to light response

vertebrate retina is an “inverted” structure
light  blood vessels, ganglion
cells, retinal interneurons, bipolar
cells  photoreceptors

12

first line defense pathogens

barrier defenses
skin
muscus membrane
secrections

13

aspirin reduce moderate fevor ?

• Increases activity of white bloods cells in the immune response
Thus, reduction of moderate fever with aspirin may not be advisable !

14

autoimmune T vs B cells

B lymphocytes (B cells):
• Formed in the bone marrow
• These cells produce primary & secondary antibody responses (humoral immunity)
• Primary purpose is to secrete antibodies
• Mature B cells have antibodies on their surface for specific antigen (epitope)
 when antigen binds  many differentiate into plasma cells (Ab-secreting cells)
 plasma cells secrete huge amounts of Ab molecules (2000/sec)

T lymphocytes (T cells):
• Derived from lymphocytes that have migrated to the thymus gland from the bone marrow
• Participate in cell-mediated immunity

15

perfonis - great phagocytic actvity cells

Phasic receptors
 Response adapts rapidly after
initial burst of activity
= SENSORY ADAPTATION

16

Natrual killer cells

kills cancer cells

17

perfonis - great phagocytic actvity cells

Phasic receptors
 Response adapts rapidly after
initial burst of activity
= SENSORY ADAPTATION