Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (30)

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1

## What are the components of quality health care?

###
1: effectiveness

2: equity

3: patient centeredness

4: timeliness

5: efficiency

6: safety

2

## Define evidence based practice:

### The explicit, conscientious and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about care of individual patients(and populations)

3

## Aim of EBP?

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Integrating of best

- research evidence

- clinical expertise

- patient values

4

## What is the EBP process?

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1: Access

2: Ask an answerable clinical question

3: Aquire the evidence

4: Appraise the evidence

5: Apply the evidence

5

## What are the possible research designs when there is a control and intervention group?

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Either Randomised control trial OR

Controlled Clinical Trial

6

## What research design is...When 2 large groups, treated and nontreated are followed for years or even decades to count how many develop a particular disease

### Cohort study

7

## Which research design is used when the HISTORIES of a group of people with a condition is compared with a group of people without the condition - in order to find suspected casual factors:

### Case control

8

## Research design of, interviewing women asking if they have had a baby in the past few months and if they took a specific drug during pregnancy?

### Cross sectional studies

9

## What kind of data is mild, moderate, severe?

### Categorical ordinal

10

## What kind of data is gender, eye colour, burning-tingling-shooting?

### Categorical nominal

11

## What kind of data is height, weight, temp?

### Numerical continuous

12

## What kind of data is #students, counts?

### Numerical discrete

13

## Stating the null and alternative?

### ________(Intervention) had not significant effects on _______(what is being measured) of the _______(describe participants)

14

## When testing hypothesis with p-values:

###
1. State significance level (usually alpha = 0.05)

2. state p values for what effects are being measured

3. Is the p value greater or smaller than significance level?

- if P < 0.05 = reject the null

- if P > 0.05 = fail to reject the null

15

## What does a p value of 0.05 mean?

###
When assuming the null (with significance level 0.05)

You'd obtain the observed difference or more in 5% of studies due to random sampling error

16

## Why would someone set the significance level at 0.01?

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When we want to make sure chance plays as small a role as possible

Usually done with a large sample and when there is high risk

Eg. Deadly medications

17

## Describe sensitivity:

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True positive

Probability diagnostic test is positive in patients who do have the disease

Eg. Sensitivity of 0.85 = there is a 85% chance that if the test is positive that you do have the disease

18

## Draw out diagnostic accuracy table

### Now pls

19

## Describe specificity:

###
True Negative

Probability diagnostic test is negative in patients that do not have the disease

Eg. Specificity of 0.75? There is a 75% chance that if the test is negative the individual does not have the condition

20

## What is the false negative rate?

### Probability the test will fail to detect disease in a patient with disease

21

## What is false positive?

### Probability test is positive for someone without the disease

22

## Use the info given to display the results of the diagnostic test in a table (2x2 table):

###
Y axis = test result

X axis = disease state

Both positive then negative

Only fill table with counts at this stage

Eg. 12 TP, 14 FP u knooo

23

## What is the formula for sensitivity?

### TP/(TP + FN) X 100

24

## What is the formula for specificity?

### (TN/TN + FP) X 100

25

## How do you recommend things based on sensitivity and specificity?

###
Say which one is low, and which one is slightly better

Say how close to 100 eg. Too far from, fairly close

Therefore I would say this is a) not a good test b) a good test for ___

26

## In stats what does the 68-95-99.7 rule mean?

###
Just draw a normal distribution with 1-3 standard deviations mannnnnn

"When data is normally distributed the 68-95-99.7 rule refers to approximately how many of your scores will fall between a certain number of standard deviations

27

## Explain p-values:

###
1. It is a probability value that tells you how much chance played a role in that research

2. The p-value is used to reject or fail to reject the null(the null is the starting point for hypothesis testing)

3. The p-value is related to the sample in study(draw circle diagram with population and sample and p value and confidence intervals)

28

## Explain confidence intervals:

###
1. Confidence intervals are estimated range of values within which population parameter is going to lie

2. Confidence level comes from alpha Eg. Significance level of alpha = 0.05 = 95%, 95% confident true pop mean lies between stated values of lower and upper confidence limit

3. The narrower CI more precise

29

## How do you know a study is a randomised control?

### If it states random allocation anyyywhereere aye

30