test 2 Flashcards Preview

Standard English Grammar > test 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in test 2 Deck (20)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the two main parts of a sentence by form and by function? Show how they are diagrammed.

Form: Noun phrase, Verb Phrase
Function: Subject, Predicate

2

List the six verb types by symbol and name. Give an example of each in a sentence. Label them.

Be- Be verbs. (Am, Is, Are, Was, Were, Be, Being, Been)
- We ARE going.

LV- Linking Verbs. If it can be replaced by "is" or "seems"
- He SMELLS bad.

Vi- Verb Intransitive. Does not carry across.
-He STOPS. - He LOOKS.

Vt- Verb Transitive. Carries across, all have direct objects which are the noun phrase that receives the action of the verb.
- He STOPS a train.

Vg- Verb Give. If the verb can be substituted for "give," and the sentence contains an indirect object.
- He AWARDED her roses.

Vc- Verb Consider. If the verb can be substituted for "consider," and the sentence contains an object compliment.
- We FIND George handsome.

3

What is the linking verb test? Give an example.

If you can substitute "is" or "seems" for the verb, it is a linking verb.

- He LOOKS cold.

4

Explain the difference between an intransitive verb and a transitive verb. Give an example of each in a sentence. Label them.

With an intransitive verb, the action stops at the verb.
- Ex. He STOPS. He LOOKS.

With a transitive verb, the actions move to the direct object.
-Ex. He STOPS bullets.

5

What is the difference between a subject complement and an object complement? Give an example of each in a sentence. Label them.

A subject complement renames or modifies the subject.
-Ex. My BROWN dog ran away.

An object complement renames or modifies the direct object
-Ex. We consider George HANDSOME.

6

What is the difference between an indirect object and a direct object? Give an example of each in a sentence. Label them.

An indirect object receives a direct object.
Ex. He gave HER flowers.

A direct object receives the action of the verb.
Ex. He stops a TRAIN.

(He gave < WHAT? : D.O. > to < WHO : I.O. > )

7

What is the optional slot, and where does it appear in a sentence? Give an example in a sentence and label it.

The optional slot is reserved for Adverbs that are used to modify verbs.

Ex- He ran SLOWLY.

8

Explain when you would use a pedestal in a diagram, and give an example of a diagram using it.

Pedestals are used for prepositional phrases when their function is object or subject complement
Ex. I find her kitten OUT OF SHAPE.

9

What are the five forms for a verb? List them for a regular verb and for an irregular verb.

Regular Irregular

Stem : Walk Eat
-s : Walks Eats
-ed : Walked Ate
-ing : Walking Eating
-en : Walked Eaten

10

What is a phrasal verb? Give an example in a sentence and label it.

An idiomatic phrase consisting of a verb and another element. Verb + Particle(Function: completes predicate)

- He PUT UP WITH her.

11

What is the perfect form? Give an example.

The perfect form is the same as perfect aspect (-en form). It shows the status of the action as complete.

ex. We have eaten.

12

List the five things to know about tense.

-Tense doesn't refer necessarily to time, tense is about form

-There are two tenses in English: Past and Present

-English has no future tense

-All verbs have tense

- When verbs appear in phrases, only the first word gets the tense

13

what is meant by aspect? Give two examples.

Aspect determines wether or not the action is continuos or completed.

Continuos Aspect- She is washing her car.

Perfect Aspect- The door is broken.

14

Can aspect carry tense? When aspect is in a verb phrase how is tense carried?

Aspect CANNOT carry tense.

When aspect is used in a verb phrase, the auxiliary carries tense.

15

What is modality and what does it refer to? Give an example.

Modality is the modal form of the verb, and it modulates on likelihood/ probability.

We COULD GO.

We SHOULD GO.

16

Give an example of a partial modal.

ought to

have to

17

What is an epistemic modal? Give examples of a present conditional and a past conditional. Label them

Epistemic modals refer to possibility, ability, speculation, or knowledge.

Present conditional- You WOULD GET wet if it rained

Past conditional- If it had rained, you WOULD HAVE gotten wet.

18

What is a deontic modal? Give examples of a present conditional and a past conditional. Label them.

Deontic modals convey permission or obligation.

Present conditional- You MAY HAVE my car.

Past Conditional- You COULD HAVE came.

19

Where do modals appear in the verb phrase and what does that have to do with tense?

Modals come first, so they are what gets tense. They can be present or past tense.

20

Explain when do is added to a verb phrase, and give an example.

"DO" is added to a verb phrase for three primary reasons:

EMPHATIC- to emphasize or reinforce the verb
-ex. I DO like it.

NEGATION- (No Aux) to deny or negate a verb.
-ex. I DOn't know.

QUESTIONS- to introduce a question.
-ex. DO you know?