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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (61):
1

Vowel characteristics

Low frequency

High energy

Low intelligibility

2

Consonant characteristics

High frequency

Low energy

High intelligibility

3

Audibility (articulation) index

Speech banana

100 dots = weighted distribution of dots

AI of .76 means 76% of phonemes audible to that person

4

2 speech acoustic principles

Concerned with relative, not absolute values

Great deal of redundancy in speech acoustics

(Various cues available simultaneously)

5

Speech acoustics cueing categories

Frequency

Frequency over time

Time

Intensity

6

Formants

Bands/concentrations of energy within certain frequencies

Use this info to identify vowels

Broad peaks of resonance as breath passes through vocal tract

7

Formant/frequency ratio

F2 divided by F1

Used to identify or label vowels

8

/S/

Very difficult to understand with HL and important in English

Males: 3500-8500Hz
Females: 4500-9000Hz

9

Frequency over time

Formant transitions(changes in energy)

Rapid changes that go from one position to a steady position for vowels

10

Rising formant transitions

Formant starts at lower frequency then rises to steady state frequency of vowel

11

Falling formant transitions

Formant starts at higher frequency then goes down to steady state position

12

Steady state transition

Basically a straight line going into vowels

13

Information from F1 and F2 transitions

Give info about phoneme being produced

14

Info from F1

Manner of articulation

15

Info from F2

Place of articulation

More difficult for HH person b/c higher frequency with rapid transitions

16

Speech acoustic redundancy

Multiple speech cues simultaneously are easier for normal hearing people

HH listeners might rely on one cue more than another

17

Voicing bar

Low frequency band of energy

18

Timing cue examples

Voice onset time - when did vocal cords vibrate after air release

Impact on vowel - vowels last longer in voiced environment (beat vs bead)

19

Spectrograph

Used to create spectrograms

Olde version used heated stylus to burn paper

20

Sound

Individual's perception of a pattern of vibrations that originate from a source in the environment

21

Acoustic speech features

Nonsegmentals (duration, intensity, frequency)

Segmentals (vowels - tense/lax, open/closed, consonants - manner, place, voicing)

22

Nonsegmentals

Duration -seconds, time. Length of sound how it starts, changes, and finishes

Intensity - dB, loudness. Force or power of sound

Frequency - Hz, pitch. Number of sound waves at ear each second

23

4 levels of auditory skills

Detection (most basic, not perceiving)

Discrimination

Identification

Comprehension

24

Detection

Ability to respond to presence or absence of sound

25

Discrimination

Ability to perceive differences in suprasegmental features or in acoustic properties of speech sounds

26

Identification

Ability to reproduce a speech stimulus by naming or identifying through pointing to a picture or repeating the speech heard

27

Comprehension

To understand the meaning of what has been heard

28

Visuals of acoustic info

Speech acoustics audiogram

Vowel/consonant formant charts

Consonant formant table

29

Fundamental frequency

Rate at which vocal folds vibrate

Male- 125Hz

Female - 250Hz

Child - 325Hz

30

Vowel perception primary cue

Formant/frequency ratio cue

Child with HH may make mistakes normal hearing child wouldn't make

Lower frequency (back vowels) better for HH

31

Vowel classifications

Back

Central

Front

32

HA listening check

No output

Muffled sound

Feedback

Distortion

Intermittent sound

Ling sounds while changing volume, squeeze HA for intermittent sound

33

Ling sounds

At extremes of speech banana , if all are heard then it's possible for all speech sounds to be produced clearly

/a/ /u/ /sh/ /S/

34

No output issue (2 reasons)

Check batteries (use battery tester, replace)
Place battery correctly
Right type of battery
Corrosion in battery compartment


External switches (not off or telecoil)

35

No output (3 reasons)

Earmold - impacted with wax

Tubing - collapsed, clogged, moisture

Moisture

36

Weak/muffled sound

Almost dead battery (tested 1.0 volts or less = garbage)

Battery leak = garbage

Dirty/clogged mic screen

Earmold clogged

37

Feedback issues

Volume set too high

Improperly fit earmold

Tubing crack

Check earmold/tubing feedback

Check earhook feedback

Check internal feedback

38

Distortion issues

Battery terminal corrosion

Change battery

Check mic (dirty or clogged)

Excessive wax in ear

Earmold needs venting

Moisture in HA

defective volume control

39

Intermittent issues

Battery corrosion

Tubing collapsed or bent

Defective volume control

40

Routine HA care

Avoid high temps

Avoid moisture

Battery - replacements, remove at night

Clean earmold with soap and water

Protect from hard knocks

Turn off when removing

Repairs by audiologist

41

Transmission

Sound passes through surface into space beyond it

42

Absorption

Surface absorbs sound like sponge

43

Reflection

Sound strikes surface and changes direction like ball bouncing off wall

One angle

44

Diffusion

Sound strikes surface and is scattered in many directions

Multiple angles

45

Key variable for an echo

Time

46

Reverberation

Technical term for echo

47

Reverberation time

Amount of time it takes for signal to decrease by 60dB in room

How echoic/reverberant a space is

More sound waves bouncing off objects = more echoic

48

Absorption coefficient

How absorbent surfaces are in a room

Reciprocally related to RT

Greater absorption coefficient = shorter RT

49

Ways to increase absorption coefficient

Carpeting

Curtains/drapes

Cork board/sound panels

Dropped ceiling tiles (acoustic tiles)

Tennis balls for chairs

Baffles

50

Signal to noise ratio

Simple comparison that's useful for estimating how understandable speech is in a room

Sound of voice - background noise = S/N ratio

Want a more positive S/N ratio

51

Good RT

0.4 seconds

52

Observing room for sound

Create noise survey/noise map

Determine sources of noise

Perform troubleshooting where child usually is

53

Anechoic chamber

Room with no echo; truly soundproof

RT of 0.0 seconds

Wedges made of fiberglass insulation material

54

KEMAR

Knowls electronic mannequin for auditory research

55

Inverse square law

Double distance from sound, sound decreases by 6dB

56

Children at risk for poor classroom acoustics

Children with HL

younger than 13yo

Artic disorders

Lang learning problems

Learning disabilities

Non native English speakers

History otitis media

Auditory processing disorders

57

Upward spread of masking

When there's a lot of energy that can mask speech energy that's trying to be perceived

58

Effects of noise on hearing in classroom

Masks speech sounds

Voice fatigue

Increased listening effort

Developmental factors

59

Causes of high noise in classrooms

Loud heating, ventilation, air

Lights, pencil sharpeners, movement

Noise outside building

Hallway noise

60

Noise reduction

Subtract noise level in receiving room to noise level in source room

High NR is good

61

Assistive listening devices

Personal FM system

Sound field FM system

Induction loop

Infrared systems

Hard wired FM systems