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Flashcards in TEST 2 Deck (46):
1

Kallman's


Interrupted secretion of GnRH, loss of sense of smell, hypergonadism, incomplete pubertal maturation, infertility

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hypergonadism

the condition of excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands. Impotence in males, amenorrhea in females

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obesity


Diabetes, cardiovascular and liver disease, sexual function and semen quality

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Buttocks, hips fat

Greater E4:P4 ratio

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Breasts fat, small hips

Greater P4:E4 ratio

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anabolic steroids long term issue

Increased LDL levels
Acne/blood pressure/Aggressive behavior
Liver damage/Jaundice
Hypergonadism (decreased GnRH, FSH, LH secretion)
Abnormal sperms

In females:
Increased libido
Irregular lenses/amenorrhea
Hair loss
Breast atrophy
Clitoral hypertrophy

7

pituitary gland

master endocrine gland, bridge between nervous system and endocrine system

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Hypothalamus

Pituitary gland connection
Releases GnRH > anterior pituitary makes LH or FSH
Releases prolactin releasing hormone > AP makes PROLACTIN, which stimulates milk production

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Prolactin

Peptide hormone released by anterior pituitary which promotes lactation.

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Progesterone

A hormone produced by the ovaries which acts with estrogen to bring about the menstral cycle.

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Estrogens (Conjugated)

Ductal tree

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End of pregnancy

Milk is produced (Galactogenesis)
Menses stopped (Amenorrhea)
Libido decreases
During pregnancy, e4 and p4 block PRL milk synthesis

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Oxytocin

Suckling stimulates nerves > hypothalamus > posterior pituitary releases oxytocin to let milk flow

14

hCG

vaginal-pudendal nerves clitoral-pelvic nerves(cervical stimulation)

15

Dopamine

Desire and pleasure. Before orgasm

16

Oxytocin

Contentment, cuddle, right after orgasm.
Causes contractions of scrotum, prostate, anal. Pulse of OT associated with ejaculation. Contractions of vagina

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Prolactin

Sanitation, stress relief. Suppressed dopamine, linked to sleep

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compulsive sexual behaviour

Satyriasis in men, nymphomania in women

19

Adrenarche

The maturation of the adrenal glands that takes place during adolescence.

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gonadarche

maturing of the sex glands

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semenarche

first ejaculation

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menarche

the first menstrual period. No ovulation, multiple ovules develop

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Puberty

capable of sexual reproduction > hypothalamic, pituitary, gonadal

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adolescence

Cognitive, emotional, social maturation > frontal lobe

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Extended ovulation

Primates can copulate outside of cycle

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estrous cycle

the female reproductive cycle of mammals other than primates

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Pheremones

chemical signals released by organisms when they are ready to breed

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3 menstrual phases:

1. Shedding phase: 3-5 days, shedding of endometrial lining, blood, lowest hormonal concentration
2. Proliferative phase: regeneration of endometrial epithelium, proliferation of blood vessels
3. Secretory phase: proliferation curbed, endometrium secretes fluid, blood supply increased.

29

PMS (premenstrual syndrome)

indicates a mild distress near end of postovulatory (luteal) phase

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oligomenorrhea

scanty or infrequent menstrual flow

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menorrhagia

excessive menstrual bleeding

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amenorrhea

absence of menstruation
Primary: no menses
Secondary: calorie deficiency/too much exercise

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Shortage of e4 leads to

Thin endometrium

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Excess e4 leads to

Thickened endometrium

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Excess p4 leads to

Vascularized endometrium

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Estimating ovulation

Nasal body temp dips on day of ovulation then rises over 48 hr period
LH peaks
Trackable through urine

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Ferning pattern

Pattern found in vaginal mucous and saliva during ovulation.

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Highest percentage chance of conception occurs

72 hours before ovulation

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capacitation is

the penultimate step in maturation of the spermatozoa while in vagina

40

vulvodynia

chronic vulvar discomfort with complaints of burning and superficial irritation

41

Vaginismus

involuntary muscle spasms in the outer part of the vagina that make intercourse impossible

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cumulus oophorus

a mound of granulosa cells that covers the oocyte and secures it to the follicle wall

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Teratogens

Agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses

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effacement

thinning of the cervix in relation to labor

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preeclampsia

a complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension, edema, and proteinuria

46

eclampsia

a more serious form of preeclampsia, characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma