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Human Sexuality > FINAL FINAL > Flashcards

Flashcards in FINAL FINAL Deck (52):
1

Capacitaiton

Removal of protective cover off head of sperm.
Activation of sperm motility

2

_____ acts as filter to remove abnormal sperm

Mucus. Must be porous for conception to occur.

3

Areas in hospitable to sperm (2):

Vagina
Uterus

4

Percentage of sperm that reach the oocyte

0.0005% (~200 out of ~40 million)

5

Vulvodynia

Chronic pain in vulvar area
Relieved by removal of some basal tissue

6

Vaginismus

Involuntary contraction of perenial muscle making intercourse painful or impossible

7

Cumulus cells

Cells surrounding and protecting the egg

8

Collective endeavor

Multiple sperm required to pierce through cumulus cells

9

Acrosome reaction

Sperm attaches to reinforced cover (zona pellucida)
Activated chemical drill to penetrate glycoproteins.

10

Cortical reaction

Zona pellucida becomes impenetrable to prevent polyspermy

11

Developmental steps (10)

Fertilization > zygote > 2 cell > 4 cell > 8 cell > 8 cell compacted morula > 16 cell morula > 32 cell morula > early blastocyst > late blastocyst

12

Day 0
Day 3
Day 4
Day 8
Implantation range

Day 0 Amullary region
Day 3 development in fallopian
Day 4 enter uterus
Day 8 late blastocyst
Implantation range 6-14 days

13

Implantation

8 days after conception

14

Embryonic Period

8th week
When organogenesis is initiated

15

Fetus

9-10 weeks
Organogenesis is complete including placenta

16

Epitheliochorial placenta

(Hippos and pigs)
Layer of fetal tissue merely pressed close against the uterus wall

17

Hemochorial

Maternal blood is in direct contact with the chorion

18

Cortisol

Hormone responsible for initiating the birthing process

19

Effacement

Dialation/thinning of cervix

20

Birth: Stage I

Effacement (8-12 hr)

21

Birth: Stage II

Delivery of baby (1-2 hr)

22

Birth: Stage III

Placental expulsion (10-20 min)

23

Episiotomy

Cutting of the vagina to facilitate birth

24

Lochia

Postpartum bleeding

25

Preeclampsia

Unknown cause, affects pregnant women, swollen hands and feet (indentation)

26

Eclampsia

Caused by complications of preeclampsia. convulsions, death

27

Gestational diabetes

Occurs in pregnant women only
Reduced insulin synthesis
7 fold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes

28

Premature birth

Live infant before 37 weeks

29

Stillborn

fetus in-utero death or during delivery

30

___% of optimal 'fertile' cycles lead to live birth

30%

31

Abortion

Termination before 28 weeks

32

Spontaneous abortion

Miscarriage before 20th week

33

2 kinds of induced abortions

Theraputic (mother's life in danger)
Elective

34

1st state to liberalize abortion laws

Colorado

35

FACE

Freedom of Access to Clinical Entrance 1994

36

Drug abortion

7 wk. 2 pills: first one reduces blood supply to uterus, blocking P4 from interacting with endometrium, the second contracts the uterus to expell the embryo

37

Dilation and curettage

6 wk pregnancy. Embryo is scraped off the uterine wall

38

Manual/Electric vacuum aspiration

12 wk. embryo is suctioned out of the uterus

39

Dilation and extraction

2nd trimester: fetus is chopped up and extracted

40

Abortion method developed in nazi camps

Injection of concentrated salt solution into amniotic sac

41

Hysterotomy

removal of the amniotic sac pre-birth

42

Abortion complications

1. Bleeding
2. Infection
3. Infertility
4. Death

43

Coitus obstructus

intentional retrograde ejaculation

44

Margaret Sanger

Coined the term 'birth control'
Mother of reproductive freedom, founded American Birth Control League

45

Bill Baird

'father of contraception', landmark ruling changed accessibility to contraception

46

Modern birth control pills:

flood system with P4 which impedes ovulation, thins endometrium, removes secretory phase, and thickens cervical mucus. 21 day hormone, 7 days placebo

47

Vaginal hormonal rings

Increase risk of cancer/side effects

48

STDs vs STIs

STDs can be cured, STIs are lifelong and may not manifest physically

49

Chlamydia

Bacterial.
Spread by unprotected sex.
Male: Urethral discharge, burning during urination.
Female: Irritation, discharge, pelvic pain.
Long term: eye infections
TREATABLE

50

Gohorrhea

Bacterial.
Male: malodorous discharge, burning during urination.
Female: inflammation, post coital bleeding
TREATABLE

51

Syphilis - Primary

Bacterial.
Transmitted by contact with syphilis sore
single painless sore in penis, vagina, anus, mouth
TREATABLE

52

Syphilis - Secondary

6 months after initial sore.
Bacterial.
rash, itchy skin, as bacteria spreads through body via blood stream