Test 2 Flashcards Preview

Health Care Ethics COPY > Test 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (21):
1

"Squeaky Wheel Gets the Grease"

Asshole from LA. Goes around suing businesses for not meeting handicap requirements.

2

Did Steve Jobs cheat?

Needed liver transplant.
Registered at several transplant centers- needed to be able to arrive within six hours, buy your spot, etc.
Steve Jobs had $$$ plus private jet.
Waiting time in LA- 3 years
Waiting time in Memphis-less than 1 year (4 months during 2002-2007)

3

Organ donation

Cost
Availability
Supply

4

Stem cells

Don't age.
Immortal.
Divide indefinitely.
Don't genetically degrade.
Grow into whatever cells they are surrounded by. (Heart, lungs, etc.)

5

Genetic Testing

Is there a right to have children who are likely to be impaired?
- yes. Genetic testing and/or forced abortion

Is society justified in requiring that people submit to genetic screening, cause lint, or prenatal diagnosis.
-if anything, it should be done at birth and should be paid for.

Should public funds be used to pay for genetic tests when an individual is unable to pay?
-could be done at birth. Included with all the current process.

6

Positive Eugenics

Strives to increase the number of helpful or good traits in a population.

7

Negative Eugenics

Attempt to reduce or eliminate the number of harmful or unwanted genes in a population.

8

Eugenics

-Master Race (Hilter/WW2- blonde hair, blue eyes.)
-positive + negative = debate
*to be successful, must require test and controls on the reproductive activities of the population. (Pure breeds; USA was the first to do this.)

9

Cloning

-you become a person at birth
-every zygote= a person
-at what point does the zygote become a human being: at conception or birth?

10

Informed consent

Informed
Un-coerced
Competent

11

Euthanasia

Act of killing someone painlessly->relieve suffering from an incurable illness
( Greek meaning: easy death)

12

Types of euthanasia

Self-administered
-active or passive

Other-administered
-active
*voluntary, involuntary or non-voluntary
-passive
*voluntary, involuntary or non-voluntary

13

Euthanasia- Parts

1. Who did the act- self or other?
2. Was the act active or passive?
3. Was the person who was euthanized a voluntary, involuntary or non-voluntary?

14

Euthanasia- Part 1

Self- the person caused the death of specific events that lead to the death.

Other- someone caused the death or the specific events that Lead to the death.

15

Euthanasia- Part 2

Active- the action taken itself causes the death

Passive- "nature takes it course"- the item preventing death is removed and the patient is allowed to die.

16

Euthanasia- Part 3

Voluntary- the patient expressed his or her wishes to die

Involuntary- the patient has expressed his or her wish NOT to die.

Non-voluntary- the wishes of the patient are not known.

17

Experimentation

Untried surgeries/ treatments- for those who have no other option.
Someone has to be the first to try it out.

18

Principles of the Nuremberg Code (1-10)

1. Voluntary consent is a must.
2. Experiment must be: for the good of the society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature.
3. Experiment should be designed and based in the results of animal testing and knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment.
4. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.
5. No experiment should be conducted where there is a priori reason to believe that deserves or disabling injury will occur.
6. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the people to be solved by the experiment.
7. Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death.
8. The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons. Highest degree of skill and care should be required throughout the entire experiment.
9. The experiment can be bought to an end at any time if subjects reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible.
10. Scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at all point in time.

19

Death- 4 types

Traditional-permanent
Whole-brain-irreversible ( entire brain has died.)
Higher-brain- lost of consciousness and reasoning power. Lack of oxygen to the brain?
Personhood- the quality and condition of being a individual person.

20

Tuskegee Syphilis Study

BAD BLOOD
35% of black pop. Was infected with syphilis (Macon County)
Six month study, no money for the extensive treatments.
10,000 blacks to be treated and diagnose.
Treated only with placebos.
Lasted for 40 years- 28 of its participants died by the time it ended.
Gov. Paid out $10 million in court settlements to the subjects, their families, or heirs.
8 are still alive in 1998, but numbers are dwindling.

21

Clinical Trails- Phases 1- 4

1. Does it kill you?
2. Does it work? Statistically and safety.
3. Compare to other drugs.
4. Doctor now uses drugs and use date from that. Already on the shelves.