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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (50):
1

The school of hematologist held that the erythrocytes and granular leukocytes develop in different sites from seperate unimpotent cells in the marrow. This is the ____ theory.

Polyphyletic

2

A ____ is defined as a cell capable of self-replication or differentiation or both. These cells may either remain undifferentiated, or may differentiate into more mature cells that are unipotential

PHSC

3

The bone marrow, in terms of histological organization, consists of blood cells, their precursors, and adipose cells close packed within the meshes of a loose stroma.

Only the first part is true (up to precursors)

4

In developing embryos, three successive phases are recognized in which their principle site of blood cell formation shifts from one region to another. The first phase of formation is

Mesoblastic phase (yolk sac)

5

________ cells are active during the normal growth of bones and may be activated in adult life during internal reorganization of bone or in the healing of fractures and repair of other forms of injury

Osteoprogenitor

6

The correct sequence of tissue preparation is _____________

Fixation
Embedding
Sectioning
Staining
Mounting

FESSM

7

In this tissue type small bundles of thin collagenous fibrils form complex three dimensional networks, whose interstices are coupled by large numbers of free a coils.

Dense irregular connective tissue

8

Cancellous bone consists of a three dimensional lattice of branching spicules of __________

Trabaculae

9

The endosteum is composed of a thin layer of ________

???

10

Cartilage is enclosed in a dense connective tissue covering called_________

Perichondrium

11

The marrow cavity of diaphysis and the cavities of spongy bone are lined by ____________

Endosteum

12

Joints in which there is little or no movement are called _____

Synarthrosis

13

Which of the following blood cell formation stages does not belong in the same group as the others?

Myeloblast

14

All of the following are mononuclear wandering cells except _______

a. Lymphocytes
b. Monocytes
c. Eosinophils
d. Neutrophils
e. Fibroblasts ***

15

Name the two leukocytes present in peripheral blood, which arises from bone and lymphatic tissue (spleen) and is associated with immunological responses.

Monocytes and lymphocytes

16

The principle cells of fully formed bone are the ______ which reside in lacunae within the calcified interstitial substances.

Osteocytes

17

The long bones of the extremities are first laid down in cartilage models, and their growth in the length depends upon intramembranous ossification (stmt 1). The growth in diameter of the shaft is the result of deposition of new membrane bone beneath the periosteum (stmt 2). The compact bone forming the shaft of fully developed long bone is almost entirely the product of endochondral ossification (stmt 3).

Stmt 2 is true
stmts 3 & 1 are false

18

The stain used to observe the fibers of lymphoid tissue is _______

Silver nitrate

19

In connective tissue proper, which one of the following is the principal agent of repair?

Fibroblasts

20

Mast cells are now recognized as sensitive sentinels detecting foreign substances and initiating a local inflammatory response in the tissues. They are known to carry out the following responses except:

a. Anticoagulation
b. Increase vascular permeability
c. Causes contraction of smooth muscles
d. Participates in local defense mechanisms
e. Each statement above is true*****

21

Which of the following fibers is present in all types of connective tissue but vary greatly in their abundance?

Collagenous fibers

22

Within the connective tissue there are two categories of cells, one being fixed cells and the other being wandering cells. Which one of the following has both these properties?

Macrophages

23

_______ is a specialized form of connective tissue consisting of cells, _________, and extra cellular fibers embedded in a gel-like matrix

cartilage, chondrocytes

24

The formed elements of connective tissue are embedded in a matrix of __________

Viscous collagen

25

__________ are similar to tendon, except that the elements are somewhat less regularly arranged.

Ligaments

26

What cell type has a very important function in resistance to disease and is principle producer of antibodies?

plasma

27

What is the effect of parathyroid hormone administration?

causes mobilization of calcium by promoting bone absorption

28

two different modes of osteoprogenesis are recognized embryos which are

intramembranous and endochondral

29

Which of the following is NOT true of erythrocytes?

true cells

30

__________ are responsible for formation of bone matrix and are invariably found of the advancing surfaces of developing of growing bones

osteoblasts

31

__________ are cells frequently found in shallow concavities called Howship’s lacunae and engaged in bone resorption

osteoclasts

32

Cancellous bone is composed of lamellae with relativity large trabeculae usually penetrated by blood vessels.

a. sometimes false
b. false
c. usually true
d.b & e only ****
e. never true

33

Unlike other forms of connective tissues _______ has no nerves or blood vessels of its own

cartilage

34

__________ cartilage is the most common and characteristic type

hyaline

35

During hemopoiesis the stage following the polychromatophilic erythroblast is the _________?

reticulocyte

36

If ________, is dentured boiling or by chemical treatment, it yields a familiar substance ___________

collagen, gelatin

37

Hypertoxic(oxygen deficiency) stimulus to the marrow is mediated by a blood born hormonal agent called _________?

erythropoietin

38

Experimental studies of spleen colonies has revealed that the monocyte-macrophage cell line shared with the granulocytes a common committed cell- CFU-GM. The monoblast is described from colonies in cell culture and is known to give rise to

myeloblasts

39

During hemopoiesis the polypoidy concentration is a characteristic of ______ cell lineage.

thrombopoiesis

40

Traditionally, the blood cells have been divided into ________ categories according to their origin

two

41

The main blood forming tissue in the adult mammal is the ______

bone marrow

42

The process of transformation of blood cells is called hemopoiesis, and the sites where it occurs are referred to as ___________

hemopoietic organs

43

Cartilage regeneration in the adult takes place by a process known as

chondrosis

44

Howship’s Lecunae are known to be associated with which of the following cells?

osteoclast

45

___________ is a substance that increases the permeability of capillaries and venules and also has a marked effect upon the blood pressure

histamine

46

Bones at the base of the skull, in the vertebral column, the pelvis, and extremities are cartilage bones (stmt 1), because they are first formed of hyaline cartilage (stmt 2).

a. stmt 1 true, but stmt 2 is false
b. stmt 2 is true, stmt 1 should exclude pelvis
c. both stmt are true
d. both statements are false
e. 2 is true,but 1 is false ****

47

This hormone tends to inhibit bone resoprtion

calcitonin

48

Which of the following is the smallest of the wandering cells of connective tissue?

lymphocytes

49

Marrow transplantation and chromosome marker studies have shown beyond a doubt that ______ originating in the marrow are capable of repopulating thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes.

lymphocytes

50

During this cell development the nucleus is extruded or rather pinched off surrounded by a very think film of cytoplasm. From the above information this cell line would best correspond to _______

erythropoiesis