Test 2 (Chapters 1-6) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 (Chapters 1-6) Deck (61):
1

Why is the notion of parts of speech unreliable?

We can't memorize the specific parts of speech categories because they change based on usage.

"Look UP a word"

Run UP the hill"

2

Why is the list of parts of speech variable?

It varies because people come to the language from different backgrounds.

"To fire someone"

"Start a fire"

3

Finite vs. Nonfinite

A finite verb carries tense, a nonfinite verb does not.

In the sentence, "Austin has carried books before"

"Has" is finite

"Carried"is nonfinite

4

Differentiate between a verb phrase and a verb particle

A verb phrase is a sequence of words that occur together to form 1 verb function

ex-- Karen (has been baking) cakes all day.

A verb particle is a word that is locked into another word to constitute another meaning

ex--(look up) something

5

How do prepositions appear alone?

They appear alone in phrases.

"this is the book I was talking about"

6

Deontic modals

obligation, permission

"You must leave now"

7

Epistemic modals

ability, speculation, knowledge

"I can run a six minute mile"

8

Constituency

refers to membership in a hierarchical syntactic group

Prep Phrase constituent of NP Subject

DO constituent of a VP Predicate

9

Intensifier

constituent of a verb

"too much"

"very little"

10

Intransitive Verb

Action verb with no direct object

11

Linking Verb

If you can substitute the word for "seems" it is a linking verb

"The president LOOKED weary.

12

Transitive Verbs

action verbs with a direct object

"The boy swatted the fly"

13

Vg Verbs

Transitive verbs that can be replaced with the word "give"

must have a DO and IO

Don BOUGHT Mary a rose.

14

Vc Verbs

Transitive verb that can be replaced with the word "consider"

Many people BELIEVE vanilla to be the best flavor.

15

BE Verbs

am is are was were be being been

16

Adverbs

characterize the conditions or circumstances of actions or events

Adverb of Manner- tells how

Adverb of Duration- tells how long

Adverb of Reason- Explains why

Adverb of Cause- shows motive

Adverb of time- shows when

Adverb of instrument- tells with what

Adverb of agency- tells by who

17

Tense

two forms- past and present

first word in the main verb only carries the tense


18

Modality

refers to the purpose of the sentence

-statement, question, order, etc.

19

Aspect

refers to whether or not the action of a verb is completed or ongoing

-perfect---completed

and progressive---continuous

20

Past tense

played

21

Modal Auxiliaries

Words like "may" "should" or "must" that are added to make sentences conditional

-makes the Main Verb either "past conditional" or "present conditional"

past- could, should, would, might, must

present-- can, shall, will, may

22

Perfect Aspect

indicates that the action of a verb is completed

"the astronomer had predicted"

Past Perfect- verb has been completed in the past

Present perfect- verbs are completed in the present

23

Past Participle

form of a verb that can follow "have"

have predicted

had driven

24

Progressive Aspect

denotes continuing action

Past progressive- Travolta was dancing

present progressive- beth is crying

25

Present particple

always the -ing form of a verb

26

Determiners

closed class of words that give information about the noun they precede

numbers
articles
prearticles
possessive pronouns
demonstratives

EX-----the hat (def art = the = determiner)

27

demonstratives

this that these those

28

prearticles

Why / how are they confused with Prep Phrases?

Consider how they would be diagrammed differently in RK

attributes ofdeterminers

Prearticles are confused with prep phrases because they can contain words like "of"

--ex...."A cup of" ----prearticle showing measurement

In an RK diagram: prearticles are diagrammed as prepositional phrases

29

Post noun modifiers

"all" and "both"

when they occur after a noun

-"The kennedy's all drove"

30

why is genitive more accurate than possessive?

Genitive is more accurate than possessive because people don't always ACTUALLY own whatever is being referenced

EX---Martha Stewart's book

---------Martha owns the book = possessive

--------Martha wrote the book = genitive

-Genitive represents a relationship rather than possession

31

Why can't Reflexive Pronouns fill subject slots?

Because they always refer back to the subject noun

EX------ Himself went to the airport. (doesn't work)

32

Indefinite Pronouns

somebody, someone
anybody, anyone
everyone, everything
nothing, no one

33

Negatives

changes the meaning of the sentence by inserting the word "not" into the auxiliary component of the main verb

"Voters are NOT supporting the proposal"

considered an aux

34

Do

functions as an aux

Does
Did
Didn't
Doesn't

Also labeled as aux

35

Turning yes/ no questions into core sentences for diagramming

you must move the part of the main verb or the modal to the appropriate place in the sentence that makes it not a question. You do this by drawing a line underneath the diagram and them diagramming the sentence from there.

""Have social problems affected police work?"

Becomes:

"Social problems have affected police work.

36

Turning Wh- questions into core sentences for diagramming

You must move the part of the main verb or the modal to the appropriate place in the sentence that makes it not a question by drawing a line underneath the sentence. Then you must move the Wh- question word to likely the end of the sentence, or wherever it fits and diagram it as it would be from there.

"what had the officers worried about"

Becomes

"The officers had worried about what."

37

Changing active to passive

Introduce BE verb into aux
add prep phrase
change verb to past participle
move both subject and object noun phrase

"Congress funded the clean up"

becomes

"The clean up was funded by congress"

-only transitive verbs can be made passive

38

Diagramming imperatives

you do not need to add a subject to an imperative sentence.

The VP: Pred line will extend across the entire sentence

Above the type of verb (VT, VI, VG, VC) you will put MV: Imp

39

Coordinating conjunctions

For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So

40

Correlative Conjunctions

both...and...
Either...or....
Neither...nor...
not only....but also...

to diagram correlative conjunctions, the first conjunction word must be moved in front of the second one in the sentence by drawing a line under the sentence.

"She went either to the bed or to the field

When diagrammed, would look like:

"She went to the bed either or the field."

41

Certain core sentences with BE verbs can be rearranged into......

"Existential there" sentences

42

Diagramming passive voice

be wary of diagramming passive. A passive verb must be labeled as such next to MV in the diagram

"the jaguar is called an XJR."

"is called" is a present passive

43

Diagramming interrogative sentences

In an interrogative sentence, the verb must be diagrammed as "Int" next to the MV

"why do school buildings sit?"

"do sit" is a Present interrogative, or PresInt



44


Diagramming imperative sentences

in an imperative sentence, MV must have Imp next to it

"Bake the cake"

Bake : Imp

45

Restrictive Relative Clauses

dependent clauses that function as adjectives within noun phrases.

Start with relative pronouns

"the soccer team who went to state is in town"

46

Relative Pronouns

Who
Whom
Which
that

47

What is the difference between determiners and adjectives?

Adjectives are an Open Class, can be inflected, more can be added

The tall man met a fat woman.

tall and fat are adjectives


Determiners are a Closed Class, not inflected, you cant make up new determiners.

The man took her Porsche.

her-- Possessive Pronoun--determiner

48

Deixis

how is it rhetorically useful?

rhetorical device that points, or shows proximity or distance.

it can align a speaker to something, or show separation from something.

"I did not have relations with that woman" (distance)

"i love this guy" (close)

49

Rhetorically, how are definite and indefinite articles useful

Definite Article-- expresses shared information, one specific thing. Only "the"

Ex----The chair (Specific)

Indefinite Article-- doesn't express any shared information

Ex--- A chair (nonspecific)

50

Independent Possessive Pronouns

Stand Alone and are not determiners

---the locker is HERS

51

NOT becomes an attribute of AUX

NOT makes an aux constituent with HAVE or BE

52

How can DO act as a modal?

Does it carry the conditional component of modal verbs?

DO acts as a modal when asking a question or when placed with NOT in an aux

DO carries the tense

EX---Do the dishes.

53

How can DO be considered a proverb?

Used in place of many other action verbs just as a pronoun is used in place of a noun

-EX.....Karen did the dishes

54

Explain how the default active pattern NP+VP+NP changes to passive

1) D.O. moves to the subject slot

2)Add a form of BE to the main verb

3) at minimum, the pattern must change to NP + AUX + VP

-the agent may or may not be added via prep phrase

EX---------- Karen baked a cake ----->>> A cake was baked (by Karen)

55

agentless passives

when are they useful?

No agent "doing" the verb

EX----A cake was baked.

Last night a man was murdered

useful when the agent is unnecessary, unknown or purposefully withheld

56

Explain expletives

Expletives = Lexically empty. Has a grammatical function in a sentence but no meaning of its own

Ex. There are two days left.

Can fill a noun phrase slot-- but it is NOT a noun or pronoun

Expletives are placeholders-- point out certain info

The argument stems from grammatical subjects vs. logical subjects

57

Why is an unstated YOU not part of imperatives?

English forbids an unstated YOU. It is a rhetorical feature, not a syntactic one

58

When diagramming compounds, where do you attach the conjunction in a single constituent?

Conjunctions are always attached to the constituent on their right

EX------I'm going to the mall or the movies.

59

Can VERB + TENSE carry a negative?

are there limits?

it can, but it is limited and not as direct

Prefixes are commonly used, but if a prefix or "not" aren't used, the tense changes.

We only have words that imply negativity

--Never, unlikely, anti

-EX-----She never goes.

60

Explain how restrictive relative clauses embed in independent clauses

---They are always constituents of NP's

---and become adjective clauses

Restrictive clauses are separated by commas, they are embedded in the Independent Clause by using a subordinator.

Adding commas makes restrictive clauses nonrestrictive

EX----The bus drivers who were on strike attended the meeting.

specifies that not all bus drivers are on strike

"who" -- functions as a subordinator in the sentence

61

Why don't we punctuate restrictive relative clauses?

It would make them nonrestrictive and change the meaning

commas are how we distinguish between restrictive & nonrestrictive

Restrictive clauses contain necessary info
-narrow down
- are part of the subject

EX--- Bus driver sentence again