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Flashcards in Test 2 hematology Deck (77):
1

decreased number of WBCs

Leukopenia

2

Left Shift definition

Proportion of immature neutrophils (band cells) increases over mature leukocytes

3

Normally __-__% of our white cells are bands.

2-6

4

The bone marrow is stimulated by __ or __

inflammation
infection

5

Right shift definition

Ratio of immature to mature neutrophils is considered with reduced count or lack of young neutrophils in blood smear

6

Right shift is associated with presence of __ __. This fact shows suppression of __ __ activity

giant neutrophils
bone marrow

7

Neutrophils %

40-65

8

Lymphocytes %

20-35

9

Monocytes %

2-10

10

Eosinophils %

1-6

11

Basophils %

0.5-1

12

Polymorphonuclear WBCs

Neutrophils (2-5 nuclei)
Eosinophils (2 nuclei)
Basophils (2 nuclei)

13

Mononuclear WBCs

Lymphocytes
Monocytes

14

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are aka ___ due to presence of __ in their cytoplasmm visible in light microscope.

granulocytes
granules

15

Mononuclear leukocytes are aka ___ because there are no visible granules in light microscope

agranulocytes

16

neutrophil function

1st wbc to enter site of inflammation
-phagocytosis

17

Neutrophils are associated with

Bacterial Infection
Fungal Infection
Inflammation

18

Lifetime of neutrophils

6 hrs- a few days

19

Causes of Neutropenia

Marrow Depression
Viral Infection

20

Function of eosinophils

Histaminase located in granules inactivates histamine
Production of eicosanoids

21

Eosinophils play a role in...

allergic reaction
bronchial asthma
parasitic infestations

22

Eosinophil lifetime

8-12 days

23

decreased eosinophils may manifest in __

Cushing's

24

Function of basophils

Synthesize and store histamine and heparin

25

Lifetime of basophils

A few hours to a few days

26

BAsophils are associated with..

Inflammation (histamine)
Hypersensitivity
Infections (TB, smallpox)
Polycythemia

27

Lymphocytes divisions

B-
T-
Natural killers

28

Function of lymphocytes

Affector cells of immune system
B-cells produce plasma cells
Regulation of immune system
antiviral, antitumorous

29

Lifetime of lymphocytes

years for memory cells, weeks for all else

30

Lymphocytes increased levels associated with..

Infectious mononucleosis (atypical lymphocytes)

31

Monocytes function

Phagocytosis (most active of all phagocytic cells)
-mature into macrophage

32

Normal RBC count

3.8-5.1 million/cubic millimeter

33

Different size of rbc

anicocytosis

34

Different Shape of RBC

Poikilocytosis

35

Increased RBC size--> Macrocytes. Found in : (4)

MEgaloblastic anemia
autoimmune hemolytic anemias
alcoholism
chronic liver diseases

36

Decreased RBC size--> Microcytes. Found in: (3)

Iron-deficiency anemia
thalassemia
Sickle cell anemia

37

tear drop morphology is found with..

Myelofibrosis

38

Whata are fragments that are small, spherical, triangular, or irregular?

Schistocytes

39

Crenated description

multiple short symmetric projections (10-30 of same length), not related to any disease

40

Acanthocytes description. Found in??

Irregular unequal spicules
found in splenoectomy

41

Burr cells description. found in?

irregular, assymetric projections, small cells
found in uremia

42

spur cells description

Long irregularly shaped projections
-liver disease, uremia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

43

Target cells: increase __ __ due to increased __ and __: found in...

surface area
cholesterol
lecithin
-obstructive liver diseases
-abnormal Hb diseases
-iron deficiency anemia

44

spherocytes description

loss of biconcavity, smaller in diameter, dark color without central pallor area.

45

basophilic stippling is caused by aggregates of __ that look like dark __ granules throughout the cells.. Found with: (2)

ribosomes
blue
-lead pisoning
-thalassemia

46

Cabot rings are __ shaped, __ __ structures. found in (2)

ring
figure eight
lead poisoning
pernicious anemia

47

Howell-Jolly bodies are __ nuclear remnants, single deep __ color, foound in:

megaloblastic anemia
hemolytic anemia
post-splenectomy

48

Reticulocytes are immature __ cells with cytoplasmic ___, appear as diffusely __ in color. The number of reticulocytes is a good indicator of __ __ acitivity

red
RNA
blue
bone marrow

49

Normal hematocrit for men and women

45% for men
40% for women

50

Each gram of Hb binds ___ mL of O2

1.34

51

Normal levels of Hb

11.6-15.2

52

Fetal hemoglobin (HbF)

a2y2

53

Adult Hemoglobin (HbA)

a2B2

54

Primitive Hemoglobin (HbP)

a2s2

55

Decreased Hb levels typically found in

iron deficiency anemia

56

Mean Copuscular Volume (MCV) indicates what?

average size of the RBC

57

MCV normal range is __-__ femtoliters (fL)- in normocytes

80-99

58

-MCV

80

59

MCV > or equal to __ fL means bigger cell size

100

60

Mean Corpuscular HEmoglobin (MCH) is what?

Average mass of Hb per RBC

61

Mormal range of MCH

(normochromic) 27-31 picograms (pg)

62

MEan corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC) is what?

Measure of concentration of Hb in a given volume of packed RBCs

63

How do you calculate MCHC

Divide MCH by MCV
*normal is 32-36 g/dL

64

Methoglobinemia manifestations
70%

no manifestations
skin discoloration (blush)
headache, anxiety, dyspnea
fatigue, dizziness, tachycardia, confusion
coma, arrhythma
death

65

erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is what?

The rate at which RBCs sediment in a period of one hour

66

normal range for esr for males and females

males: 1-13 mm/hr
females: 1-20 mm/hour

67

Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test that tests the bloods capacity to bind __ to __

iron
transferrin

68

Normal range of iron in the blood

60-170 mcg/dL

69

TIBC range

240-450 mcg/dL

70

transferrin saturation range

20-50%

71

Ferritin is a __ storage protein found in __ cells

iron
reticulo-endothelial

72

Normal range of ferritin

20-300 nanograms/ml

73

Serum ferritin levels are generally accepted as reliable single indicators of the presence of __ deficiency

iron

74

Name some coagulation tests

Bleding time
partial thromboplastin time
prothrombin time
activated clotting time
plasma thrombin time
plasma fibrinogen
Fibrin split products

75

Normal bleeding time

3-6 minutes

76

Incisions are not made it platelet count is

75 thousand/ mcl

77

Elevated bleeding time cause

vit. K deficiency