Flashcards in Test 2 hematology Deck (77):
decreased number of WBCs
Left Shift definition
Proportion of immature neutrophils (band cells) increases over mature leukocytes
Normally __-__% of our white cells are bands.
The bone marrow is stimulated by __ or __
Right shift definition
Ratio of immature to mature neutrophils is considered with reduced count or lack of young neutrophils in blood smear
Right shift is associated with presence of __ __. This fact shows suppression of __ __ activity
Neutrophils (2-5 nuclei)
Eosinophils (2 nuclei)
Basophils (2 nuclei)
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are aka ___ due to presence of __ in their cytoplasmm visible in light microscope.
Mononuclear leukocytes are aka ___ because there are no visible granules in light microscope
1st wbc to enter site of inflammation
Neutrophils are associated with
Lifetime of neutrophils
6 hrs- a few days
Causes of Neutropenia
Function of eosinophils
Histaminase located in granules inactivates histamine
Production of eicosanoids
Eosinophils play a role in...
decreased eosinophils may manifest in __
Function of basophils
Synthesize and store histamine and heparin
Lifetime of basophils
A few hours to a few days
BAsophils are associated with..
Infections (TB, smallpox)
Function of lymphocytes
Affector cells of immune system
B-cells produce plasma cells
Regulation of immune system
Lifetime of lymphocytes
years for memory cells, weeks for all else
Lymphocytes increased levels associated with..
Infectious mononucleosis (atypical lymphocytes)
Phagocytosis (most active of all phagocytic cells)
-mature into macrophage
Normal RBC count
3.8-5.1 million/cubic millimeter
Different size of rbc
Different Shape of RBC
Increased RBC size--> Macrocytes. Found in : (4)
autoimmune hemolytic anemias
chronic liver diseases
Decreased RBC size--> Microcytes. Found in: (3)
Sickle cell anemia
tear drop morphology is found with..
Whata are fragments that are small, spherical, triangular, or irregular?
multiple short symmetric projections (10-30 of same length), not related to any disease
Acanthocytes description. Found in??
Irregular unequal spicules
found in splenoectomy
Burr cells description. found in?
irregular, assymetric projections, small cells
found in uremia
spur cells description
Long irregularly shaped projections
-liver disease, uremia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Target cells: increase __ __ due to increased __ and __: found in...
-obstructive liver diseases
-abnormal Hb diseases
-iron deficiency anemia
loss of biconcavity, smaller in diameter, dark color without central pallor area.
basophilic stippling is caused by aggregates of __ that look like dark __ granules throughout the cells.. Found with: (2)
Cabot rings are __ shaped, __ __ structures. found in (2)
Howell-Jolly bodies are __ nuclear remnants, single deep __ color, foound in:
Reticulocytes are immature __ cells with cytoplasmic ___, appear as diffusely __ in color. The number of reticulocytes is a good indicator of __ __ acitivity
Normal hematocrit for men and women
45% for men
40% for women
Each gram of Hb binds ___ mL of O2
Normal levels of Hb
Fetal hemoglobin (HbF)
Adult Hemoglobin (HbA)
Primitive Hemoglobin (HbP)
Decreased Hb levels typically found in
iron deficiency anemia
Mean Copuscular Volume (MCV) indicates what?
average size of the RBC
MCV normal range is __-__ femtoliters (fL)- in normocytes
MCV > or equal to __ fL means bigger cell size
Mean Corpuscular HEmoglobin (MCH) is what?
Average mass of Hb per RBC
Mormal range of MCH
(normochromic) 27-31 picograms (pg)
MEan corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC) is what?
Measure of concentration of Hb in a given volume of packed RBCs
How do you calculate MCHC
Divide MCH by MCV
*normal is 32-36 g/dL
skin discoloration (blush)
headache, anxiety, dyspnea
fatigue, dizziness, tachycardia, confusion
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is what?
The rate at which RBCs sediment in a period of one hour
normal range for esr for males and females
males: 1-13 mm/hr
females: 1-20 mm/hour
Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test that tests the bloods capacity to bind __ to __
Normal range of iron in the blood
transferrin saturation range
Ferritin is a __ storage protein found in __ cells
Normal range of ferritin
Serum ferritin levels are generally accepted as reliable single indicators of the presence of __ deficiency
Name some coagulation tests
partial thromboplastin time
activated clotting time
plasma thrombin time
Fibrin split products
Normal bleeding time
Incisions are not made it platelet count is
75 thousand/ mcl