Test 2 Lympathic & Immune System & Stress Flashcards Preview

A&P II > Test 2 Lympathic & Immune System & Stress > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 2 Lympathic & Immune System & Stress Deck (45):
1

Function of the Lymph System

Maintain fluid balance & immunity

2

Function of Lymph Nodes

Defense and filtration, phagocytosis, hematopoiesis of lymphocytes

3

Organs of the lymph system (8)

thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, vermiform appendix, and 3 pairs of tonsils

4

5 Functions of the spleen

*Defense-macrophages line sinusoid
*Tissue repair-resevoir of monocytes
*RBC destruction & platelet destruction
*Hematopoiesis
*Blood resevoir

5

Location of 3 pairs of tonsils

*Palatine tonsils - Oral Cavity
*Pharyngeal tonsils - Pharynx-
*Lingual tonsils - underneath the tongue

6

Location of important clusters of lymph nodes

*Submental & Submaxillary - found in face
*Superficial cervical - found in neck
*Superficial cubital, supratrochlear - elbow region
*Axillary - under arm
*Inguinal - groin region

7

Chemical composition of lymph fluid

*resembles blood plasma
*isotonic, higher in protein than IF, lower in protein than plasma
*volume - 2,500-2,800 ml
*Presence of protein high to low: Plasma>Lymph>IF

8

Comparisons between lymphatic vessels and veins

Lymphatic vessels:
*have thinner walls
*have more valves
*contain lymph nodes
*capillaries leak proteins; lymphatic returns proteins

9

Function & Location of the Left Thoracic Duct

(aka L Lymphatic duct) Left side of body, drains to the rest of the body

10

Function & Location of the Right Lymphatic Duct

Right side of body, drains to right side of head, right side of trunk, right upper extremity

11

Changes that occur in the lymphatic tissue with age

*Lymphatic organs decrease in size after puberty
*Therefore, there is an increase risk for:
-infection & cancer
-hypersensitivity (much longer healing time)

12

Structure of a Typical Lymph Node

*Afferent lymph vessel & Efferent lymph vessel
*Capsule
*Trabeculae & blood vessels
*Hilus & blood vessels

13

Lymphatic vessels of the breast

*Superficial vessels converge to form a diffuse, cutaneous lymphatic plexus
*Subareolar plexus - located under the areola surrounding the nipple
*85% drains into the axillary lymphatic vessels

14

Function of the Immune System

*Being able to resist particular infectious diseases causing pathogen
*Implies protection against normal exposure

15

What is Innate Immunity

(Non-specific) Immunity one is born with

16

What is Adaptive Immunity

(Acquired) Immunity from a disease one has already had or has been vaccinated against

17

Importance of 1st Line of Defense

Healthy & intact skin and mucous membranes prevents pathogens from entering body

18

Function & Location of the enzyme Lysozyme

Chemical barrier found in tears and saliva

19

Cardinal signs of inflammation (2nd line of defense)

*Heat (calor)
*redness (rubor)
*swelling (tumor)
*pain (dolor)

20

Steps of phagocytosis

*Pseudopodia of phagocytes reach out and capture the bacteria
*phagosome fuses with lysosome to form phagolysosome

21

5 Examples of macrophages by location

*Bloodstream - circulating macrophages
*Bone - Osteoclasts
*CNS - microglia
*Liver - Kupffer
*Lung - Alveolar macrophages

22

Steps in the inflammation response

*Response is initiated by tissue injury
*Cells are recruited (chemotactic factors)
*debris is removed by phagocytic cells
*repair and regeneration

23

5 Immunity System cell groups

*Phagocytic cells - neutrophils, macrophages
*AMI cells - B Cells, plasma cells, B memory cells
*CMI cells - T killer, T helper, T suppressor, T memory cells
*Mediator cells - mast cells, basophils
*Natural Killer (NK) cells

24

Antibody

large proteins produced by vertebrates that play important role in identifying and eliminating foreign objects

25

Antigen

Found on surfaces of pathogens, recognized as non-self by immune system

26

MHC (multihistocompatibility complex)

antigen-presenting cells

27

Function of each T Cell

*T cells - sensitized (activated) T cells
*T Killer cells - release lymphokines
*Helper T cell - present antigen to B cells
*Suppressor T Cell - Turn off B cell response
*Memory cell - maintains immunity

28

Functions of 4 Cytokines

*Chemotactic Factor (CF) - attract macrophages
*Macrophage Activating Factor (MAF) -
*Migration Inhibition Factor (MIF)
*Lymphotoxin (LT) - powerful poison that kills any cell it attacks

29

Function of B Cells

*Naive B Cells - inactive, synthesize antibody
*Once Naive B Cells are activated, they clone (mitosis)
*Some form Effector B Cells (Plasma cell) and produces specific antibody
*Others form memory B cells

30

Structure of Antibody Molecule

*2 antigen binding sites
*2 heavy chains & 2 light chains
*Complement binding site
*Molecules are "Y" shaped and flexible

31

Five classes of antibodies

*IgA - secreted by mucous membranes
*IgD - membrane receptors found in B cells
*IgE - involved in allergic reactions (mast cells)
*IgG - found in the plasma
*IgM - found in Membranes (receptors)

32

Role of complement

*Group of enzymes that produce a cascade of reactions resulting in a variety of immune responses
*Kills foreign cells by cytolysis or apoptosis
*Complement binds to antibodies

33

4 Types of Immunity

*Naturally acquired active immunity - had disease
*Naturally acquired passive immunity - from mother
*Artificial Acquired active immunity - immunization
*Artificial acquired passive immunity - received shot of immune IgG

34

Definition of autoimmune disease & examples

Immune system makes antibodies against its own cells
*Grave's disease - thyroid (TSH) receptors
*Rheumatoid arthritis - joints
*Myasthenia gravis - neuromuscular junction
*Lupus - anti-nuclear antibody
*Multiple Sclerosis - antibody against myelin sheath

35

What is the stress triad?

*Hypertrophied adrenal
*Atrophied thymus & lymph nodes
*Bleeding ulcers

36

Stages of General Adaptation Syndrome

1. Alarm
2. Resistance
3. Exhaustion

37

Effect of increased aldosterone

Causes sodium & fluid retention

38

Effect of increased cortisone

Causes increase in blood sugar

39

Effect of increased epinephrine

Causes increase secretion of ACTH & cortisone

40

What causes decrease in immune function during stress

ACTH kills immune cells
Decreased number of lymphocytes
Decreased number of eosinophils

41

Where is Stress hormone CrRH made

Hypothalmus

42

Where is stress hormone ACTH made

Ant. Pituitary

43

Where is stress hormone Cortisone made

Adrenal Cortex (raises BS)

44

Where is stress hormone Aldosterone made

Adrenal Cortex (raises BP)

45

Where is epinephrine & norepinephrine made

Adrenal Medulla (raises BP)