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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (63):
0

What are electrolytes

Minerals wen placed in water break up into charged particles

1

Positively charged

Sodium and potassium

2

Negatively charged ions

Chloride is negatively charged

3

Sodium functions

Maintain normal fluid balance
Maintains acid-base balance in body
Needed for nerve impulse trans and muscle contraction

4

Sodium is?

Sodium ion is the major positively charged outside the cell

5

What regulates sodium

Kidneys regulate the body content of sodium under hormonal control

6

Absorption of sodium

Easily absorbed from the intestinal tract then through the blood stream to kidneys which filters out the sodium and returns the needed amount to the blood stream

7

Where is sodium stored

30-40% of body's sodium is stored on the surface of bone crystals where it can be easily used if the blood level drops

8

Where is sodium

Sodium chloride (table salt)
1tsp salt (5.5 gram) 200mg of sodium

9

What percentage of salt intake comes from natural content of foods

10% comes from the natural content of food

10

What percent of salt added during cooking and at table

15% is from salt added during cooking and at table

11

What percent of salt added during processing and manufacturing ect. Raw potatoes verse potato chips

75% is added during the process of manufactured food

12

Foods high in sodium

Soy sauce, quarter pounder with cheese, tomato soup, dill pickles, ham, hot dogs, alka seltzer, pretzels, potato chips,msg, processed foods

13

Are foods high in sodium low in potassium

Yes and if foods are high in potassium they are low in sodium

14

What's the minimum requirement of sodium for a healthy adult

500mg of sodium for an adult

15

What is the maximum sodium intake for a healthy adult

6grams (2400mg) of sodium

16

How many grams of sodium do fat ass Americans consume per day

6 to 18grams per day

17

How many grams of sodium do Asians consume a day

30 - 40 grams per day

18

What are the risks of HBP

Strokes heart attacks kidney damage loss of vision due to injured blood vessels in the eye

19

What is mild HBP

95 or 90 -104

20

What is moderate HBP

105-119

21

What is severe HBP

Anything above 120

22

What is the systolic pressure

The level reached when the heart is contracting most forcefully

23

What is diastolic pressure

The lowest value reached between contractions
-this number determines if treatment is needed

24

Functions of potassium

1-Major electrolyte charged ion inside the cell
2-maintains fluid and electrolyte balance
3-needed for transmission of nerve impulses contractions of muscles
4-necessary for maintaining normal heartbeat
5-May have protective effect n proventing HBP

25

Kidneys regulate what percent of potassium

90 percent of potassium is absorbed and regulated

26

Deficency

Not seen in adults and if so through continual diarrhea, vomiting and diuretics

27

Potassium Toxicity

To little or too much can cause cardiac arrest- not from foods but from supplements.

28

Chloride (cl) function

Negative ion outside the cell
Helps maintain fluid balance
It is part of hydrochloride acid that maintains acidity of stomachs levels

29

What are some Potassium food sources ?

Highest potatoes, beans, orange juice, bananas, milk

30

RDA: potassium

Minimum requirements for healthy adult is 2000mg

31

What are the functions of chloride

1. Major neg ion outside cells and so helps maintain fluid balance
2. Is part of hydrochloride acid that maintain acidity of the stomach

32

RDA: of chloride

Minimum requirements is 750mg for healthy adults

33

Chloride food source

Salt, soy sauce, processed foods

34

Chloride deficiency and toxicity

None in healthy adults except if continual vomiting or diarrhea

35

Where is most of calcium found

99% found in bones
1% found in body fluid

36

What's constantly happening to bones

They are constantly gaining and loosing minerals

During growth children gain more than they loose

37

What's needed for bone formation

Calcium(Ca), phosphorus(P), magnesium(Mg), vitamin D

38

Balance of calcium

Involves a system of hormones and vitamin D

39

Functions of calcium

Extra skeletal (outside the bones) calcium is needed for normal response of nerves to stimuli
2 Muscle contraction
3 blood clotting
4 membrane permeability
5 normal rhythm of heart beat

40

Calcium absorption

Adults absorb 25% of calcium eaten children and pregnant women much more...20-30% of ingested calcium is absorbed

41

Factors that increase Ca absorption

Vitamin D… Acid stomach in the first part of the small intestine… Lactose… Growth hormone

42

Factors that decrease Ca absorption

Lack of stomach acid… Insufficient Amount of vitamin D… High phosphorus and take that high-fiber diet…

43

Recommended dietary allowance

Males and females 14-18 1300mg/day
19-50 1000mg/day

44

Toxicity

Over 2.5g may induce constipation, increase of kidney stones

45

P

Phosphorus is essential of bone mineral (every 2 calcium is 1 phosphorus)

85% (700g) found n adult bones.

46

Function of phosphorus

Forms part of bone and teeth
Needed to absorb glucose and glycerol
Helps move fatty acid
Essential element of DNA
buffering system
Acid-base balance
Muscle contraction
Part of casein

47

What is P in

Present in almost all foods especially milk milk products liver and other animal protein sources

48

Major contributors to P

Protein rich foods and cereal grain plus additive

49

What contains 15-20x's more phosphorus

Meat, poultry, fish

50

How much phosphorus do men and women need

1500mg/day men
1000mg/day women

51

Excessive intake or toxicity

4000mg/day can cause calcification of nonskeletal tissue like kidneys

52

Magnesium function

Needed as a part of bones and muscle
Activator for more than 300enzymes
Trans of nerve impulse

53

DRI

Males 19-30=400 older 420
Females 19-30=310 older 320

54

Sources of Mg

Highest in nuts legumes unmilled grains all in processed foods contain magnesium

55

Poor sources of Mg

Fish meat milk fruit (except bananas)

56

6 Minerals

Calcium phosphorus magnesium sodium potassium chloride

57

Function of Iron (Fe)

Constituent of hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin and muscle
Essential and transportation of oxygen from the lungs to tissue
Needed for oxidation reduction enzymes

58

Function of chromium

Chromium stimulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, which are important for brain function

59

What helps u absorb iron

Vitamin c

60

What may chromium help prevent

Heart disease

61

Food high in chromium

Whole grain products and certain fruits and vegetables like broccoli, potatoes, grape juice, and oranges

bran cereals lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts

62

List of electrolytes

Potassium and sodium