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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (78)
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1

any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms of a society or group in which it occurs

deviance

2

a form of deviance that violates our criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and/or other negative sanctions

crime

3

the systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance

social control

4

the systematic study of crime and the criminal justice system

criminology

5

said criminals could be identified by physical traits; called the father of criminology because he was the first to study crime; he worked in prisons and found that a lot of criminals look a lot alike - looked more primitive

Caesare Lombroso

6

said body shape predicts criminality; if you are a mesomorph, you are more likely to be a violent criminal

William Sheldon

7

quiet, fragile personality - lean, delicate build

ecfomorph

8

assertive personality - muscular build

mesomorph

9

relaxed, tolerant personality - plump build

endomorph

10

said powerfully built sons grow up to be less sensitive to others because of how they are raised

Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck

11

found that "good boys" display a strong conscience, while "bad boys" demonstrate a weak conscience

Waller Reckless and Simon Dinitz

12

personality controls impulses to become deviant (this theory leaves out the social context of the deviant/non-deviant person; why are some sub-groups more deviant?)

Containment Theory

13

people feel strain when exposed to cultural goals that they cannot meet

Robert Merton's Social Strain Theory

14

argues that deviant labels are applied to people who interfere with the operation of capitalism

Spitzer

15

once you have been labeled deviant or not, it is a self-fulfilling prophecy

Lemert's Labeling Theory

16

little effect on a person's self-concept

primary deviance

17

person begins to take on a deviant identity

secondary deviance

18

one becomes deviant after one associates with deviants

Differential Association Theory/The Sutherland Theory

19

the breakdown of communal relationships leads to the lack of local connections, which leads to low levels of supervision and controls, which leads to deviance

Social Disorganization Theory

20

a criminal act against a person or person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias

hate crime

21

theft, vandalism, arson; doesn't physically hurt others

crimes against property

22

no readily apparent victims; ex: drug use

victimless crime

23

comprises illegal activités committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs

occupational/white collar crimes

24

business operations that supply illegal goods and services for profit

organized crime

25

illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with its support

corporate crime

26

fraud, scamming

internet crime

27

illegal or unethical acts involving the use of power by government officials or act perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government or overthrow it

political crime

28

refers to the local, state, and federal agencies that enforce laws, adjudicate crimes, and treat and rehabilitate criminals; the courts, police, and punishment and corrections

criminal justice system

29

any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed

punishment

30

punishing to the extent of the crime committed

retribution