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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (118)
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1

Linnaeus classification system

GENUS *specific epithet (in italics)
both make up the species

2

taxonomy

naming of species

3

systematics

organization

4

Phylogenetic tree expresses _______

relatedness

5

nodes on tree=

common ancestor

6

what type of gene transfer do bacteria have

horizontal

7

homologous

feature came from a common ancestor with the same feature

8

homoplastic

similar to one another but not from a common ancestor

9

birds vs. butterflies

homoplastic

10

bat and bird wings

homoplastic

11

convergent evolution

2 different species evolve in same conditions and the pressures of the environment cause them to develop similar traits

12

how did homoplastic traits come about?

convergent evolution

13

plesiomorphies

ancestral character; features present in ancestral species and remain present in ALL groups descended

14

synapormorphies

derived character; novel traits evolved when 2 populations become separated and evolve independently.
originate in recent common ancestor and present in all descendants

15

homologous macromolecules

subunit sequence (and functionally) similar in two different types of organisms

16

monophyletic group

common ancestor and all its descendants
shared derived characters
sister taxa share most recent common ancestor

17

paraphyletic group

common ancestor and some but not all descendants
shares ancestral character

18

polyphyletic group

evolutionary lines that do not share same recent common ancestor
unnatural grouping misrepresents evolutionary relationships

19

outgroup

taxon that branched off earlier than other taxa (ingroup).
closest relative of group being studied.

20

choanoflagelletes

one cells
most closely related to animals/multicellular organisms

21

8 characteristics of animals

1. multicellular eukaryotes
2. heterotrophs (get energy from consuming others)
3. specialized body cells
4. diverse body plans
5. capable of locomotion at some time during their life cycle
6. most have a nervous system and muscle systems that enable them to respond rapidly to environment
7. most are diploid and reproduce sexually with large immobile eggs and small, flagellate sperm
8. go through a period of embryonic development

22

radial symmetry

general form of wheel and similar structures regularly arranged as spokes from a central axis

23

biradial symmetry

parts of body have become specialized so that 2 planes can divide the body into similar halves

24

bilateral symmetry

divided through only one plane (which passes through midline of the body) to produce roughly equivalent right and left halves that are mirror images

25

dorsal

back

26

asymmetrical animals

sponges
fiddler crab
flounder

27

ventral

front

28

anterior

towards head (cephalic)

29

posterior

towards tail (caudal)

30

medial

towards midline