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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (259):
1

Hemoglobin + oxygen =

Oxyhemoglobin

2

Hemoglobin saturation

The percentage of heme units in a hemoglobin molecule that contains bound oxygen

3

Environmental factors affecting hemoglobin synthesis

- Po2 of blood
- Blood pH
- Temperature]
- Metabolic activity within RBC's

4

Hypoxemia/Hypoxia

Oxygen levels below 90%

5

Blood levels below 80% may

Compromise organ function

6

Each bound oxygen

Increases the efficiency of binding another oxygen molecule

7

Small changes in Po2 leads to

large changes in bound oxygen

8

Active muscle recieve

more oxygen because of larger differences in Po2

9

By regulation, commercial airlines cannot fly above

10,000 feet without pressurized or supplemental oxygen

10

Cabin pressure is maintained at the equivalent of

8500 ft

11

As blood pH decreases oxygen saturation

decreases

12

Bohr effect

Active muscles produce acids as a waste product

13

Hemoglobin molecule changes shape, affecting its ability to

bind oxygen

14

Carbon dioxide is the primary compound responsible for the

Bohr Effect

15

Carbonic anhydrase, present in RBCs, catalyzes carbon dioxide and water to

Carbonic acid

16

Temperature increase =

Hemoglobin releases more oxygen

17

Temperature decrease =

hemoglobin holds oxygen more tightly

18

Temperature effects significant only in

active tissues that are generating large amounts of heat

19

Fetal hemoglobin

Allows for oxygen to be pulled across the placental barrier to bind to fetal hemoglobin

20

Fetal hemoglobin has a

higher oxyhemoglobin saturation at lower Po2 levels

21

CO2 in bloodstream can be carrier three ways

1) Converted to carbonic acid (70%)
2) Converted to hemoglobin within red blood cells
3) Dissolved in plasma

22

Carbonic acid formation

70% CO2 transported as carbonic acid (H2CO3)
Which dissolves into H+ and bicarbonate

23

Bicarbonate ions

Move into plasma by exchange mechanism (Chloride shift) that takes in CI ions without using ATP

24

By raising or lowering the ventilation rate

The CNS can alter CO2 and thus change H+ concentration

25

Local regulation of gas transport and alveolar function

Rising PCO2 levels relax smooth muscle in arterioles and capillaries. Increase blood flow

26

Coordination of lung perfusion and alveolar ventilation

- Shifting blood flow helps direct air to bronchioles with high PCO2
- PCO2 levels control bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation

27

Regulation of respiration is done by

Respiratory rhythmicity centers of the medulla oblongata and pons

28

Diffusion at alveoli highly regulated by brain to

Maintain oxygen supply to body's tissues and removal of carbon dioxide

29

VRG

responsible for control of accessory breathing muscles

30

DRG

Primarily responsible for inspiration

31

Pontine respiratory group (PRG)

Assures precise control of inhalation and exhalation

32

More on Pontine respiratory group

- Control depth and rate of inspiration
- Reciprocal inhibition assures precise control of inspiration and respiration

33

Pneumotaxic center

Negative regulation of the DRG, promotes active exhalation

34

Apneustic center

Constant stimulation of the DRG controlling degree of inhalation

35

Quiet breathing Respiratory reflex arc

- Brief activity in DRG. Stimulates inspiratory muscles
- DRG neurons become inactive. Allowing passive exhalation

36

Forced Breathing Respiratory reflex arc

- Increased activity in DRG. Stimulates VRG which activates accessory inspiratory muscles
- After inhalation. VRG neurons stimulate active exhalation

37

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

- Leading cause of death for babies 1-12 months
- Typically between midnight and 9 am
- Cause under debate. (genetic, exposure to cigarette smoke, premature birth)

38

Function of both cough reflex and sneeze reflex

Dislodge foreign matter or irritating material from respiratory passages

39

Cough receptors

Widespread, rapidly adapting sensory receptors

40

Afferent nerves of cough reflex

Vagal nerves, CN X

41

Cough center

Centered in the solitary nucleus of the medulla oblongata *Target of cough medicine*

42

Efferent nerves of cough reflex

Phrenic and spinal motor nerves

43

Effector muscles of cough reflex

Glottis, external intercostal, diaphragm, major inspiratory and expiratory muscles

44

Components of the cough reflex

1) During cough about 2.5L air inspired, epiglottis closes, and vestibular folds and vocal cords close tightly to trap inspired air in the lung
2) Abdominal muscles contract to force abdominal contents up against the diaphragm; the muscles of expiration contract forcefully
3) Vestibular folds, vocal cords, and epiglottis open suddenly due to air pressure reaching 100 mmHg. Air rushes from lungs at high velocity, carrying foreign particles with it

45

Where are cough receptors?

Posterior wall of trachea, pharynx, and carina of trachea

46

Source of irritation for sneeze reflex

Nasal passages

47

Action potentials for sneeze reflex conducted along

Facial nerve

48

Why do we not sneeze as much during sleep

Isn't as much airflow to stir up irritating particles, so they aren't exposed to stimulants.
Fewer neurotransmitters are being produced, reducing neurotransmitters being sent to the brain

49

Brief overview of coughing reflex

- Irritation of trachea, bronchi, etc.
- Vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves
- Closed glottis
-Reflex, voluntary

50

Brief overview of sneezing reflex

- Irritation of nasal mucosa
- Trigeminal nerve
- opened glottis
- Reflex

51

Reduced capacity for air exchange can cause an older person to become

"short of breath" upon exertion

52

Lung parenchyma

Portion of lung involved with gas transfer

53

What can gradually accumulate in lymph nodes and lungs?

Carbon, dust, and pollution

54

Decrease in elastic connective tissue in lungs and thoracic cavity wall due to aging can cause

Lungs to become more compliant, thoracic cavity becomes less compliant due to calcification

55

Major organs of digestive system

Oral Cavity, Pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

56

Accessory organs of digestive system

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

57

Main functions of digestive system

- Ingestion
- Mechanical processing (mastication)
- Digestion
- Secretion
- absorption
- Excretion (defecation)

58

Lining of the digestive tract also safeguards surrounding tissue against:

- Corrosive effects of digestive acids and enzymes
- Mechanical stresses, such as abrasion
- Bacteria ingested with food or that reside in digestive tract

59

Food is digested in

six to eight hours

60

Waste is excreted after

24-72 hours

61

Foregut pathway

Begins with the abdominal esophagus and ends just inferior to the major duodenal papilla. Midway along the descending part of the duodenum

62

Foregut Includes

Abdominal esophagus, stomach, duodenum (superior to the major papilla), liver, pancreas, and gallbladder

63

Midgut pathway

Begins just inferior to the major duodenal papilla in the descending part of the duodenum, and ends at the junction between the proximal two-thirds and distal one-third of the transverse colon

64

Midgut Includes

Duodenum (inferior to the major duodenal papilla), jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, and the right two-thirds of the transverse colon

65

Hindgut pathway

Begins just before the left colic flexure (The junction between the proximal two-thirds and distal one-third of the transverse colon) and ends midway through the anal canal

66

Hindgut includes

Left one-third of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and upper part of the anal canal

67

Arterial divisions of gut tube

Foregut - Celiac trunk
Midgut - Superior mesenteric
Hindgut - inferior mesenteric

68

Venuous divisions of gut tube

Forgut - individual veins
Midgut - superior mesenteric
Hindgut - inferior mesenteric

69

Nerve supply divisions of gut tube

Foregut - T5-T9
Midgut - T10-T11
Hindgut - T12
Pelvic - L1-L2

70

Genioglossus

Major muscle responsible for protruding (or sticking out) the tongue

71

Styloglossus

muscle that elevates and retracts the tongue

72

Vertical muscle

Flattens the tongue

73

Geniohyoid muscle

moves the hyoid bone during swallowing

74

hyoglossus

depresses and retracts tongue and makes the dorsum more convex

75

Lingual papillae

- Vallate papilla (up to 100 taste buds)
- foliate papillae
- fungiform papilla
- filliform papillae (no taste buds)

76

The primary function of teeth is

to chew food (masticate)

77

Types of teeth

- incisors
-Cuspids (canines)
- Bicuspids (premolars)
- Molars

78

Dental formula

2.1.2.3
(incisors,cuspids,bicuspids,molars)

79

Total number of teeth

32

80

Wisdom teeth

vestigial third molars that helped human ancestors to grind plant tissue

81

Dentin

Mineralized, acellular matric similar to that of bone

82

Pulp cavity

Recieved blood vessels and nerves through the root canal

83

Root

Each tooth sits in a bony socket (alveolus) with a layer of cementum covering dentin of the root.
Providing protection and anchoring periodontal ligament

84

Crown

-Exposed portion of tooth
- Projects beyond soft tissue of gingivs
- Dentin covered by layer of enamel

85

Deciduous teeth

diphodonty

86

By the time the embryo is eight weeks old

there are ten teeth buds on the upper and lower arches

87

Permanent teeth replacements develop from

the same tooth germs as the primary teeth

88

Stages of tooth morphogenesis

- Initiation
- morphogenesis
- Differentiation and mineralization
- Root formation and eruption

89

Placode

Earliest stage of tooth formation

90

Enamel knots

Marks the location where the tooth cusps will form

91

Odontoblasts

secrete dentin

92

Ameloblasts

secrete enamel

93

osterblasts

secrete bone

94

cementoblasts

secrete cementum

95

3 pairs of salivary glands

- Parotid salivary gland
- sublingual salivary gland
- submandibular salivary gland

96

Parotid salivary glands

- Inferior to zygomatic arch
- Produce serous secretion, enzyme salivary amylase
- Drained by parotid duct, which empty into vestibule at second molar

97

Salivary amylase

Breaks down starches

98

Sublingual salivary glands

- Covered by mucous membrane of floor of mouth
- produce mucous scretion which acts as a buffer and lubricant
- Empty through sublingual ducts on either side of lingual frenulum

99

Submandibular salivary glands

- Located in the floor of mouth within mandibular groove
- Secrete buffersm glycoproteins (mucins), and salivary amylase
- Account for majority of salivary volume
-empty through the submandibular ducts which open immediately posterior to teeth on either side of lingual fenulum

100

Functions of saliva

- Lubracating the mouth
- Moistening and lubricating materials in the mouth
- Dissolving chemicals that stimulate taste buds and provide sensory information
- Carries the chemical cues of taste
- Initiating digestion of complex carbohydrates by the enzyme salivary amylase and lipase

101

Composition of Saliva

- 99.4% water
- 0.6% of other

102

0.6 percent of saliva includes

- Electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, And HCO3-)
- Buffers
- Glycoproteins (mucins)
- Antibodies (IgA)
- Enzymes
- Waste products

103

Swallowing involves co-ordinated activity of muscles of

oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus

104

Swallowing, by definition, involves

passage of bolus of food (solid/liquid) from the oral cavity to stomach via the pharync and esophagus

105

Whole swallowing process is partly under

voluntary control and partly reflexive in nature

106

Voluntary control of swallowing involves

Control of jaw, tongue, degree of constriction and length of pharynx and closure of laryngeal inlet

107

Four stages of swallowing

Oral/Buccal
Pharyngeal
Esophageal
Stomach

108

What phase of respiration does swallowing occur?

The expiratory phase

109

Why is swallowing considered a protective phenomenon?

Helps in clearing food material left in vestibule

110

After a successful swallow

The rhythm of respiration is reset

111

Oral phase function

Involves breaking down of food in the oral cavity

112

Oral phase bolus formation

TOngue and elevators of lower jaw play vital role in bolus formation by action of its intrinsic muscles which alters its shape. Extrinsic muscle changes its position within the oral cavity thereby helping in chewing the food by dental occlusion

113

Occlusal action of lips

Helps create an effective seal preventing the bolus from dribbling out of oral cavity

114

Mucin in the saliva

Helps bind the bolus together

115

Contraction of soft palate

Prevents nasal regurgitation, also prevents premature movement of bolus into the oropharynx

116

Pharyngeal phase

- Reflexive
- Elevation of the larynx and folding of epiglottis direct bolus past closed glottis
- Contraction of diaphragm is inhibited making simultaneous breathing and swallowing impossible
- Soft palate remains elevated in order to seal off the nasopharynx
- Epiglottis protects the airway

117

Importance of laryngeal elevation during pharyngeal stage

- Narrows laryngeal inlet
- Ensures better sealing of the laryngeal inlet by the downturned epiglottis
-Laryngeal elevation also contributes to dilation of pharynx

118

Esophageal phase

-Reflexive
-Begins as contraction of pharyngeal muscles forces the bolus through the entrance to the esophagus

119

Nausea

Unpleasant subjectibe sensation that most people have experienced at some point in their lives and usually recognize as a feeling of impending vomiting in the epigastrum or throat

120

Retching

Muscular activity of the abdomen and the thorax, often voluntary, leading to forced inspiration against a closed mouth and glottis without oral discharge of gastric contents

121

Vomiting

Largely involuntary act of forcefully expelling gastric or intestinal content through the mouth

122

Location of the Vomiting center, the chemorecptor trigger zone (CTZ)

Situated bilaterally in medulla

123

Sensory impulses from irritated parts of GIT or other organs are transmitted to CTZ through

Vagus and sympathetic afferent fibers

124

Antiemetic medications ofter target the CTZ to

completely inhibit or greatly reduce vomiting

125

During ejection of vomitus

- Esophagus relaxed throughout
- Glottis closed
- Larynx and hyoid bone drawn upward and foward
-respiration inhibited
-throat dilated to allow free exit of vomitus
- Entry of vomitus into nasopharynx is prevented by elevation of soft palate

126

Bolus of food is moved by

Visceral smooth muscle tissue of digestive tract

127

Peristaltic motion

1) Circular muscles contract behind bolus while circular muscles ahead of bolus relax
2) Longitudinal muscles ahead of bolus contract shortening adjacent segments
3) Wave of contraction in circular muscles forces the bolus foward

128

Wall of esophagus has three layers

Mucosal
Submucosal
Muscularis

129

The esophagus joins

pharynx to stomach

130

The esophagus enters the abdominopelvic cavity through

the esophageal hiatus

131

What is esophagus innervated by

fibers from the esophageal plexus

132

How long is esophagus

25-30 cm long, C6-T11

133

Mucosa of esophagus contains

nonkeratinized and stratified squamous epithelium

134

Submucosa of esophagus contains

glands which produce mucous secretion that reduces friction between bolus and esophageal lining

135

Mucosa and submucosa form

large folds that extend the length of the esophagus

136

Muscularis mucosae consists of

irregular layer of smooth muscle

137

Cardia

Where contents of the esophagus empty into the stomach

138

fundus

formed by upper curvature of the organ

139

Body

Main,central region of stomach

140

Pylorus

Lower section of the organ that facilitates emptying the contents into the small intestine (gatekeeper)

141

Lesser omentum reduced to the

Hepatogastric ligament

142

Falciform ligament

stabilizes the position of the liver and diaphragm

143

Greater omentum

first tissue observed when opening the abdominal cavity

144

stomach has 3 layers of muscle

- Longitudinal muscle layer
- Circular muscle layer
- Oblique muscle layer overlying mucosa

145

Rugae

Can expand up to 50 times and return to original size

146

Simple columnar epithelium is a secretory sheet that lines all portions of stomach that

- Produces mucus that covers interior surface of stomach
- gastric pits, shallow depressions that open onto the gastric surface
- Mucous calls, at the base, or neck, or each gastric pit, actively divide, replacing superficial cells

147

Parietal cells

Secrete HCL

148

G cells

Produce gastrin

149

Chief cells

release pepsinogen and gastric lipase (Zymogenic cell)

150

Liver blood composition

- 1/3 arterial blood from hepatic artery proper
- 2/3 venous blood from hepatic portal vein, originating in esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and most of the large intestine

151

Liver lobules function as the

basic functional units

152

Hexagonal cross section of liver shows

Six portal areas (portal triads) one at each corner of lobule

153

each lobule consists of

portal vein, hepatic artery brahcn and bile canaliculi

154

Hepatocytes

Adjust circulating levels of nutrients through selective absorption and secretion
Form series of irregular plates like wheel spokes

155

Kupffer cells

Located in sinusoidal lining..
Function as part of monocyte-macrophage system. Also store heavy metal and iron (heme)

156

Bile duct system

Secretes bile fluid into a network of narrow channels (bile canaliculli) between opposing membranes of adjacent liver cells

157

Common Bile duct

Formed by union of cystic duct and common hepatic duct

158

Pathway of common bile duct

Towards the duodenum after meeting the pancreatic duct at the duodenal ampulla

159

Cystic duct leads to

gall bladder

160

Pancreatic islet cells are

endocrine glands

161

Acinar cells

Secrete digestive enzymes

162

Duodenum

Primary site of iron absorption and the place where most chemical digestion occurs

163

Brunner's glands

Compound tubular submucosal glands found in the duodenum. Distinguishes first part of duodenum with rest, know this

164

Function of Brunner's glands

- Protect duodenum from acidic content of chyme (containing bicarbonate)
- Provide an alkaline condition for the intestinal enzymes to be active, thus enabling absorption
- Lubricate the intestinal walls with mucus

165

During fasting

villi are inactive and lie flat

166

Lacteal

lymphatic capillaryu that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine: shylomicrons

167

4 types of cells make up the lining of the small intestine

- Paneth cells
- Goblet cells
- Enterocytes
- Enteroendocrine cells

168

Paneth cells

Secrete several anti0microbial compounds and other compounds that are known to be important in immunity and host-defense

169

Goblet

Secrete mucins, posssess microvilli

170

Enterocytes

intestinal absorptive cells, contain microvilli

171

Enteroendocrine cells

Hormone and regulatory molecule secretion

172

Primary function of large intestine

Absorption of water and electrolytes and the storage of undigested material until it can be expelled from the body as feces

173

Ileocecal valve

Communication of cecum with small intestine

174

Excitatory factors of cecum

- pressure and chemical irritation relac sphincter and excite peristalisis
- Fluidity of contents promotes emptying

175

Inhibitory factors of cecum

Pressure or chemical irritation in cecum inhibits peristalisis of ileum and excites sphincter

176

Haustra

Series of pouches formed by wall of colon which permit expansion and elongation of colon

177

Taeniae coli

Formed by haustra. Three separate longitudinal ribbons of smooth muscle on the outside of colon

178

Inferior mesenteric artery

Terminal branch arises and forms the superior rectal artery and supplies the upper rectum

179

Internal iliac

Middle and rectal artery arise from this

180

Lingual lipase

Secreted by circumvallate and foliate papillae by the Ebner's glands. Starts digestion of the lipids/fats

181

Salivary amylase

Produced by the salivary glands, begins carbohydrate digestion (ptyalin)

182

Haptocorrin (R factor)

Produced by salivary glands, protects vitamin B12 from stomach acid. In the duodenum intrinsic factor (IF) binds the B12 after its release from haptocorrin by digestion. Without IF only 1% of vitamin B12 is absorbed

183

Acidity in stomach also

1) Kills most microorganisms
2) Denatures most proteins
3) Breaks down plant cell walls and animal connective tissues

184

What drugs can be absorbed through the mucous lining?

Ethanol and aspirin

185

Parietal Cells

Secrete HCL - but HCL is not made in the cell

186

G cells

produce gastrin - most abundant in the pyloric antrum. Stimulates parietal and chief cells to speed digestion

187

Delta cells (D cells)

Release comatostatin, a hormone that inhibits release of gastrin. slows the digestive process

188

Three phases of gastric control

Cephalic phase
gastric phase
intestinal phase

189

CCK - Cholecystokinin

Triggered by fats and carbohydrates
Triggers release of bile and pancreatic enzymes
a hunger suppressant

190

GIP - Gastric inhibitory peptide

Triggered by fats and carbohydrates
Stimulates duodenal gland activity

191

Secretin

Triggered by lower pH
Triggers release of bile and pancreatic enzymes
reduces gastric mobility and secretion

192

gastroenteric reflex

stimulation of the stomach by stretching triggers release of gastrin. An acidic pH in the duodenum inhibits release of further stomach contents

193

Gastrocolic reflex

Stimulation of the stomach causing increased activity in the colon

194

Duodenal-colic reflex (gastroileal reflex)

Stimulation of iliocecal valve and mass movement in the colon by the presence of food or stretch in the duodenum

195

Borborygmi (Stomach grownling)

Functionally, intiates hunger response, but also serves to flush bacterial and food waste from the intestine

196

Hunger Pangs

Usually do not begin until 12 to 24 hours after the last ingestion of food

197

What does the liver perform or regulate

- Composition of circulating blood
- Nutrient metabolism
- Waste product removal
- Amino acid synthesis
- Nutrient storage
- Hormone synthesis
- Drug inactivation
- Bile production

198

Carbohydrate metabolism

Liver stabilizes glucose levels at 90mg/dL

199

If glucose levels are low

Hepatocytes break down glycogen (glycogenolysis) and synthesize glucose (gluconeogenesis)

200

If glucose levels are too high

Glucose is stored as glycogen (glucogenesis) or use it to syntheesize lipids

201

The liver regulates circulating levels of

triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol

202

The liver performs

1) Cholesterol synthesis
2) Lipogenesis
3) production of triglycerides
4) lipoproteins synthesis

203

If lipid/cholesterol levels decline

the liver breaks down stored fats

204

If lipid/cholesterol levels in circulatory system rise

lipids become stored as fat

205

Deamination

Action of liver which removes amino acids from larger molecules

206

Ammonia, a product of deamination is converted to what?

urea, which is then extracted by kidneys

207

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)

Enzyme in liver cells that breaks down or metabolizes most alcohol

208

Alcohol flush syndrome

Buildup of acetaldehyde

209

Vitamin and nutrient storage of liver

Stores fat soluble vitamins:
A (1-2 year supply)
D(1-4 month supply)
E(3-5 year supply)
K
Copper and Iron

210

What type of synthesis involved with liver?

Amino acids, Insulin-like growth factor, hepcidin, thrombopoietin, albumin

211

What does liver help in removal of?

Antibodies and excess hormones

212

Drug inactivation with liver

Cytochrome P-450 is the primary enzyme regulating drug breakdown

213

Function of bile salts

Emulsify large lipid droplets and promote the absorption of lipids by small intestine

214

Carbohydrases

break bonds between simple sugars

215

Maltase, sucrase, lactase

- Targets maltose, sucrose, lactose
- Found in brush border of small intestine
- Carbohydrase

216

Pancreatic alpha-enzyme

- Carbohydrase
- Targets complex carbohydrates
- Secreted from Pancreas

217

Salivary amylase

- Carbohydrase
- Targets complex carbohydrates
- Secreted from salivary glands

218

Haustral contractions in the colon

roughly once every 25 minutes

219

Peristalsis in the colon

Slow movement of material through the colon

220

Mass movement in colon (Mass peristalsis)

- 1-3 times/day
- Forceful contractions
- Involve contraction of large segment of colon
- Propel contents into rectum and induce desire for defecation

221

Microbiota of colon produce three critical vitamins

- Vitamin K
- Biotin (water soluble)
- Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) (water soluble)

222

Vitamin K

Required by liver for synthesizing four clotting factors, including prothrombin

223

Biotin

Important in glucose metabolism

224

Vitamin B5

Required in manufacture of steroid hormones and some neurotransmitters

225

Bacteria break down peptides in feces and generate

- Ammonia, as soluble ammonium ions
- Volatile organic and nitrogen compounds responsible for the odor of feces
- Hydrogen sulfide, gas that produces "rotten egg" odor

226

5 general symptoms related to intestinal gas

1) Pain
2) bloating and abdominal distension
3) Excessive flatus volume
4) excessive flatus smell
5) gas incontinence

227

Larger intestine responsible for

preparing waste for excretion, which is dependent on water reabsorption

228

The longer the fecal matter remains in large intestine

the more water absorbed, feces becomes drier and defecation becomes difficult and painful (constipation)

229

Two positive feedback loops in defecation reflex, both stimulated by stretch receptors in the anus

- Long reflex which stimulates mass movements (parasympathetic system)
- Short reflex which triggers peristalic contractions in rectum

230

Fluorapatite

Product of flouride, stronger and more acid-resistant than natural hydroxyapatite.

231

Ectodermal dysplasia

Disorder that leads to absent, malformed ectodermal derivatives

232

Gastroesophageal refluc disease

Condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from stomach into the esophagus

233

Peptic ulcers

A sore in the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.
- 80% caused by helicobacter pylori
- 20% caused by prolonged use of irritants: alcohol, aspirin

234

Fatty liver disease (Hepatic steatosis)

Short term can be completely reversible once drinker sobers up. Further complications arise with long term usage/abuse. Fat makes up more than 10% liver weight

235

Liver fibrosis

Excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins that occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases

236

In advanced stages of liver fibrosis

Liver contains approx 6 times more ECM than normal

237

Liver cirrhosis

Scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue and partially blocks the flow of blood through the liver

238

Most common causes of cirrhosis

- Chronic hepatitis B, C
- Alcohol-related liver disease
- nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

239

Common complications of liver cirrhosis

Bruising, gallstones, edema

240

Liver cirrhosis and fibrosis can lead to

portal hypertension due to blockage of blood flow by scar tissue

241

Acute Pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas and usually resolves in a few days with treatment

242

Type I Diabetes

Usually develops when the immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas

243

Type II Diabetes

Primarily due to resistance by the liver, adipose tissue, and muscles. As a result, the body needs higher levels of insulin to help glucose enter cells

244

Crohn's disease

Chronic, long lasting, disease that causes inflammation in the small and large intestine. REsult of proinflammatory response to commensal gut bacteria

245

Ulcerative olitis

Only affects the colon, typically the descending colon

246

Hirschsprung's disease

A failure to form enteric ganglia in the hindgut from incomplete neural crest cell migration

247

Urology

Surgical specialty which deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs

248

Nephron of the kidney consists of

renal tubule and renal corpuscle

249

Once fluid enters renal tubule it is called

tubular fluid

250

Vasa recta

long, straight capillaries

251

Renal corpuscle histological characteristics

Glomerulus, mesangial cells, and dense layer, enclosed by the glomerular capsule, visceral epithelium, and capsular epithelium separated by capsular space

252

Renal sorpuscle primary function

filtration of blood plasma

253

Renal tubule histological characteristics

Cuboidal cells WITH MICROVILLI

254

Primary function of renal tubule

Reabsorption of ions, organism molecules, vitamins, water, secretion of drugs, toxins, and acids

255

Histological characteristics of nephron loop

squamous or low cuboidal cells

256

Primary function of nephron loop

Descending limb; reabsrption of water from tubular fluid
Ascending limb; reabsorption of ions, assists in creation of conc. gradient in the medulla

257

Distal convoluted tube (DCT) histological characteristics

Cuboidal cells with few if any microvilli

258

Primary function of DCT

REabsorption of sodium ions and calcium ions; secretions of acids, ammonia, drugs, toxins

259

Four major types of kidney stones

- Calcium stones
- Uric acid stones
- Struvite stones
-Cystine stones