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Flashcards in Practical 2 Deck (84):
1

Intrinsic stimulation

Internal stimulation that makes the heart beat by itself

2

Autorhythmic cells

Specialized, noncontractile cells that cause interinsic stimulation

3

Intrinsic conduction system

1) Initiates the action potential that causes contraction of cardiac muscle fibers
2) Provides a pathway for conduction the action potential to all cardiac muscle fibers

4

Extrinsic stimulation

Only increase or decrease intrinsic pace

5

Electrocardiograph

Recods electrical charges in the heart

6

Electrocardiogram (ECG,EKG)

Chart recording of electrical events that occur before each heartbeat

7

P wave

First wave; small, upward direction; represents atrial depolarization; occurs immediately before the atria contract

8

QRS complex

Short downward Q - tall upward R - medium downward S; represents ventricular depolarization; occurs just before the ventricles contract

9

T wave

medium, upward deflection; represents ventricular repolarization and occurs just before the ventricles relax

10

P-Q interval

interval between the beginning of the P wave until the beginning of the Q wave; represents the time interval between the beginning of conraction of the atrium and the beginning of the contraction of the ventricle

11

Q-T interval

Interval of time between the start of Q to the end of T wave; represents the time interval from the beginning of ventricuar depolarization until the end of ventricular repolarization - ventricles are contracting

12

S-T segment

Segment from the end of the S to the beginning of the T wave; it represents the time the ventricular fibers are fully deploarized

13

Normal sinus rhythm

Heart rate of 60-100 beats/min

14

Tachycardia

Heart rate above 100 beats/min

15

Bradycardia

Heart rates below 60 beats/min

16

Cardiac cycle

(# of squares counted) x 0.04 sec/mm

17

Heart block

Could be produced by cardiac damage to the AV node or AV bundle. Associated with P-Q interval

18

Complete heart block

Results in the ventricles depolarizing independently from the atria

19

Right or left bundle branch block

QRS complex longer than 0.12 sec. Two ventricles do not contract simultaneously.

20

Myocardial damage

Lengthens normal interval of QR interval of 0.38 sec.

21

What causes air to move into our lungs when we breath

the movement of the ribs

22

What is the action of the diaphragm during inhalation

Contraction

23

Bronchoscopy

Endoscopic technique of visualizing inside of airways

24

What is the purpose of physiotherapy on lungs

move the mucus

25

Alveoli

Millions of tiny air sacs where gases are exchanged

26

How does oxygen in the alveolus get into the bloodstream in the lungs?

Diffusion of oxygen from alveolus into the bloodstream

27

How does carbon dioxide get out of the bloodstream?

Breathing out makes carbon move from bloodstream to outside

28

What is the genetic problem in the lungs of someone with Cystic Fibrosis

The proteins don't work properly and the mucus is thicker

29

How is the progress of cystic fibrosis monitored?

Weight, height. Peak flow meter to see how blocked airways are

30

How does drug Pulmozyme work in cystic fibrosis patients

Helps mucus in lungs liquify to help cough it up. Chops up lung molecules

31

Pneumonia

Acute inflammation of the alveoli. The subsequent immune response causes fluid leakage and cellular accumulation (exudate) in the alveoli

32

Histological description of Smoker's Lung

Dark and mottled. Black deposits, appear more flattened

33

Histological description of Emphysema

Damaged alveoli. Disconnected/disjointed

34

How does emphysema affect gas exchange between lungs and pulmonary capillaries?

Alveoli themselves are damaged

35

Main function of the respiratory system

Brings needed oxygen into lungs and eliminates CO2

36

What are the two serous membranes surrounding each lung?

Visceral and Parietal pleura

37

What is inside the pleural cavity

Pleural/serous fluid

38

Pleural fluid

Lubricates and facilitates breathing

39

What anatomical structures make up the "Bronchial Tree"?

Terminal, Main, later, segmental bronchae, cartilage, smooth muscle

40

How are bronchioles different from the other structures of the bronchial tree?

Walls contain more smooth muscle

41

What anatomical structures are part of the conduction zone?

Terminal bronchioles

42

What anatomical structures are part of the respiratory zone?

Alveoli, alveolar duct, alveolar sac

43

What is surfactant and how does it function in an alveolus?

A mixture of phospholipids and lipoproteins which lowers surface tension of alveolar fluid

44

Anatomical structures that form the respiratory membrane in the lung

Alveolar wall and capillary wall

45

Pulmonary ventilation

Exchange of air between atmosphere and lungs

46

Boyle's law

Pressure and volume are inversely related

47

What muscles contract during quiet inspiration?

Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles

48

what additional muscles come into action during deep inspiration?

Sternolcleidomastoid, scalenes

49

What additional muscles come into action during deep expiration

Internal intercostal muscles, internal + external oblique

50

Intrapulmonary or intra-alveolar pressure

Pressure within the alveoli. 760 mm Hg is normal

51

Intrapleural pressure

Pressure within the pleural cavity

52

What is the effect of surface tension on an alveolus?

Pulls alveoli inward, alveolar wall helps overcome this effect

53

Intrapleural pressure during inspiration?

Decrease in pressure

54

Intrapleural pressure during expiration?

Increase in pressure. Returns to negative form

55

What happens when the thoracic wall is punctures at least to the level of the pleural cavity?

Pneumothorax. Lung collapses

56

Transpulmonary pressure

Suction to keep lung inflated

57

What happens to airway resistance when the bronchioles constrict?

Resistance increases, decreased airflow

58

Mathematical relationship between air flow and resistance?

increase resistance, decreased airflow

59

Effect of parasympathetic (acetylcholine) stimulation on airflow in the bronchioles?

Increased air flow, relaxation

60

Effect of histamine application on air flow in bronchioles?

Allergic reaction. Increased airway resistance, decreased air flow harder to breath

61

Effect of sympathetic (epinephrine) stimulation on bronchioles?

Dilutes bronchioles, decreased airways resistance, increased air flow, adequate gas exchange

62

Lung compliance

Ease with bags expand

63

2 factors affecting lung compliance

Stretchability of elastic fibers within lungs, furface tension within alveoli

64

What happens in an infant's lungs during respiratory distress syndrone?

Low compliance. Collapsed alveoli resist expansion

65

With Diaphragm pushed up

- Internal jar volume decreased
- Internal jar pressure increased
- volume of lungs decreased
- out of lungs

66

With Diaphragm pulled down

- internal jar volume increased
- internal jar pressure decreased
- volume of lungs increased
- into lungs

67

Bronchial sounds

Produced by air rushing through large respiratory passageways (trachea + bronchi). Both inhalation and exhalation

68

Vesicular breathing sounds

Result from air filling alveolar sacs and resembles sound of rustling or muffled breeze. Inhalation ONLY

69

Obstructive pulmonary diseases

Airflow into and out of lungs is reduced/restricted. ex. asthma

70

Diagnosis of obstructive pulmonary diseases usually requires

measurements of pulmonary flow rates

71

restrictive pulmonary disease

Person's ability to inflate and deflate the lungs is reduced, and as a result, lung l=volumes and capacities are below normal.
ex. Pulmonary fibrosis

72

Restrictive pulmonary diseases are diagnosed by determining

Lung volumes and capacities

73

Tidal Volume (TV)

Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions - normal quiet breathing: ~500 ml

74

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

The amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation: ~3100 ml

75

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

The amount of air tha can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation: ~1200 ml

76

Vital capacity (VC)

The maximum exchangable air in the lungs. Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inhalation. VC = TV + IRV + ERV: ~4800 ml

77

Minute respiratory volume

= Tidal volume (in liters) x Respirations per minute

78

Male vital capacity

= (.052) (Height) - (.022)(Age) - 3.60

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Female vital capacity

= (.041)(Height) - (.018)(Age) - 2.69

80

Forced Vital Capacity

Test in which a limit is placed on the length of time a subject has to expel vital capacity air

81

FEV1

66-83% vital capacity exhaled

82

FEV2

75-94% vital capacity exhaled

83

FEV3

78-97% vital capacity exhaled

84

When Asthmatic exhales their vital capacity maximally, FEV measurements are

all reduced because of heavy mucus secretion and smooth muscle action which reduces airway diameter and increases airway resistance