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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (119):
1

Political party

A private organization that seeks to win elections and control government power

Although political parties are very powerful, they are not mentioned in the Constitution

2

Party organization

Recruits candidates for office and provides resources for campaigns

Mobilizes voters

3

Officeholders elected or appointed in the name of the party

Responds to policy views of the public

Responds to the policy views of the party organization

4

Citizens who identify with the party

Provides workers to the party organization

Elects government officials

5

Politics in the U.S. is dominated by...

Two political parties

6

____ vie to control the House, the Senate, and the Presidency

Republicans & Democrats

7

The U.S. has ____

Single-member districts

8

Single-member districts

Favor the development of a two-party system

The one candidate with the most vote wins

The system favors the two largest parties. No one wants to “waste their vote” on smaller parties

9

The E.U.

Has proportional representation with multiple members per district

10

Proportional representation with multiple members per district

Voters generally vote by party. The parties receive seats in proportion to the votes.

11

Violence of faction

Interest groups

Madison warned against it

12

Faction

“The downfall of governments based on the people,” leading to “mortal diseases” such as “instability, injustice and confusion”

BUT you can’t outlaw faction without destroying liberty

13

Madisons opinion of factions

Madison believed that, in a large country, the many different factions will balance each other

Madison also believed that the election process would select representatives who are “wiser and more dedicated to the common good than the average citizen”

14

George Washington

Also condemned factions in his farewell speech

Yet Washington’s own Cabinet broke into the first two political parties

Federalists, Democratic-Republicans

15

Federalists

Led by Alexander hamilton, secretary of the treasury

16

Democratic-Republicans

Led by Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State

17

Washington’s Cabinet - primary controversy

Whether the federal government had power to create a national bank

18

Modern Democratic Party

Founded in 1828

Federalist Party died out, and the Democratic-Republican Party split

Led by Andrew Jackson

19

Splitting of the Democratic-Republican Party

The opposing party, the Whigs, died out after about 20 years

20

Andrew Jackson

War hero

Was seen as a “man of the people”

The Tammany Society endorsed Jackson in exchange for influence over federal jobs (more later)

21

Republican Party

Emerged in the 1850s from the Abolitionist (anti-slavery) movement

The Republican-controlled Congress passed the Reconstruction Amendments (13th-15th)

All of the 20+ black members of Congress before 1900 were Republican

Starting in the late 1800s, the Republican Party also pushed for women’s voting rights (opposed by the Democrats)

22

Abraham Lincoln

First Republican president

23

Between the Civil War and the Progressive Era (1870s-1900), ____ dominated elections

Political machines

24

Political machines

Tammany hall was a powerful “machine” based in New York

Tammany and other “machines” provided social services for many new immigrants in exchange for votes

Once the candidates were in power, they gave federal jobs and contracts back to Tammany Hall

25

Many of the Progressive Era reforms targeted the corruption of the “machines”

Direct primary elections gave the people a voice when selecting candidates within each party

Direct election of senators also gave the people a voice and diluted the power of political parties

Prohibition was, in part, an attack on the “saloon culture” of the machines

The female vote was also seen as “purer” and less corrupt

26

Teddy Roosevelt

Was a Republican President who went Third Party during the Progressive Era

TR felt that his successor in officer, William Taft, was not progressive enough

When the Republicans nominated Taft for reelection, TR created his own Progressive Bull Moose Party (1912)

While TR received more votes than Taft, he acted as a “spoiler,” sending a Democrat to the White House —> Woodrow Wilson

27

The Democrats dominated from ____

1930s-1970s, growing social welfare programs

28

Democrats 1930s-1970s

During the Great Depression, FDR’s “New Deal” gained popularity, especially for the poor and marginalized

Democrats became associated with welfare entitlement program (including Lyndon Johnson’s “Great Society”)

Democrats also received credit for the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which was passed during Johnson’s presidency

29

Republicans 1980s and 1990s

They led a Conservative backlash

Led by President Ronald Reagan, Republicans argued that the federal government had become too big and too invasive

America was also reacting to the Communist threat against freedom and prosperity

Reagan and conservative Republicans believed “less government is more” (except when it came to military defense)

30

Today the balance of power

Continues to fluctuate between Democrats and Republicans

The federal government grew in size under both President G.W. Bush and President Obama

Within the Republican Party, there is a split between moderate / Establishment candidates and conservative / Tea Party candidates

The Democratic Party is more unified in its willingness to support progressive causes

31

Democratic Platform

Emphasizes the need for government intervention and “social justice”

Economic Security for Middle Class

Economic Fairness

Social Justice

32

Democratic Platform: Economic Security for Middle Class

Government protection and subsidies for workers, housing, education, health care

33

Democratic Platform: Economic Fairness

Higher taxes for wealthy, more regulation of Wall Street and corporations

34

Democratic Platform: Social Justice

Combat climate change, fix immigration, guarantee rights of minorities, women, LGBT

35

Republican Platform

Promotes less government intervention and “traditional values” (conservative)

Economy

Defense Security

Traditional Values

Nonetheless, it is politically difficult to cut entrenched subsidies and entitlement programs. Most Republicans don’t try

36

Republican Platform: Economy

Reduce taxation and regulation

37

Republican Platform: Defense Security

Strong military, secure borders

38

Republican Platform: Traditional Values

Importance of families, traditional marriage and sanctity of unborn life

39

GOP: freedom views

Freedom “from”

40

GOP: equality views

Equality “before the law”

41

Democrats: freedom views

Freedom “to”

42

Democrats: equality views

Equality of “opportunity”

43

Freedom “to”

Bigger government promotes important social goals

44

Equality of “opportunity”

Means the government actively promotes the rights of disadvantaged groups

45

Freedom “from”

Smaller government protects individual choice and responsibility

46

Equality “before the law”

Means the government protects all parties equally, including the unborn and those who hold traditional religious beliefs

47

In the U.S. _____ dominate

Two political parties

48

In the U.S., two political parties dominate

Party leaders can increase their power by limiting our choice of candidates

Activists during the Progressive Era fought to give voters control over the candidates for each party...Leading to primary elections

49

Federal elections are a two-step process

1. The Primary elections
2. The General elections

The exact primary election process varies from party to party and from state to state

50

Primary elections

Select the top nominee from each party

51

General elections

The party nominees run against each other for the office

52

Most primaries are ____

Closed, open, or mixed

53

Closed primaries

You must be registered with a Party to vote in that Party’s primary

54

Open primaries

You can choose a Party primary regardless of your affiliation

55

Mixed primary

Registered voters must vote in their own Party primary, but unaffiliated voters can pick

56

In each of these systems, you can only vote in ___ primary

One

57

A few states have ____ primaries

Top two

58

A few states have “top two” primaries

In a few states (including LA), all primary candidates run on the same ballot

In CA and WA, the top two candidates (regardless of Party) run in the general election

In LA, the majority candidate wins. If there is no majority candidate, the top two have a “runoff” election

59

Top two system

Not allowed for Presidential primaries

60

Louisiana is ____ for Presidential primaries

Closed

61

Presidential primaries

Held on a state-by-state basis, and the results are aggregated

62

2016 presidential primary

Clinton won the Democratic primary

Trump won the Republican primary

They ran against each other in the general election

63

2016 Presidential race

Presidential primaries started in early 2016

General election was in Nov. 2016

64

Presidential race

The earliest states get the most media attention

Super Tuesday

Some states have primary caucuses instead of elections

65

Super Tuesday

The Tuesday in Feb./March where the greatest number of states vote

66

The Louisiana presidential primaries took place on ____

March 5

67

Traditionally, ____ have the first primaries

Iowa and New Hampshire

68

Iowa has the ____

First primary caucus

69

New Hampshire has the ____

First primary elections

70

After the state primaries

Final party nominees are chosen at the Party National Convention

71

Party National Conventions

These conventions take place in the summer before the Nov. election

Each state sends delegates to the conventions based on the rules of their Party

The delegates select the final party nominees

72

RNC 2016

Cleveland, OH

July 18-21

73

DNC

Philadelphia, PA

July 25-26

74

After the primaries comes the ____

General election

75

After the primaries comes the general election

The general election uses the electoral college system

76

General election 2016

Tuesday, Nov. 8

Louisiana voters elected 6 members of the House (1 per district), 1 senator and the President

77

Elections are very expensive

Over $6 Billion was spent during the last presidential election cycle (2016)

Members of Congress spend a significant amount of time fund-raising for re-election

78

Average spent to win in the House

Over $1 Million

79

Average spent to win in the Senate

Over $8 Million

80

Decisions by elected officials can have a huge financial impact on individuals and businesses

Remember the government spends $4+ trillion per year

Regulation

Spending $6 billion for an election cycle is tiny compared to potential impact (the federal government spends many hundreds of times more every year!)

81

Regulation

Can have an even greater impact than direct grants of money

1. Makes things more expensive
2. Stifles competition

82

Federal Election Commission

FEC

Regulates campaign finance

83

Source of funds

Candidates own money

Individual donors

National Party

Political Action Committees (PACs)

Super PACs

Public funds

84

Candidate’s own money - Limits

Unlimited spending on own campaign

85

Individual donors - Limits

$2.7K to candidate

$5K to PAC

86

National Party - Limit

$5K to candidate

$5K to PAC

87

Political Action Committees - Limit

$2.7K or $5K per candidate per election

88

Super PACs - Limit

Unlimited “independent” spending; can accept unlimited contributions

89

Public funds - Limit

$250 match per donor in primaries and $20M in general election; must accept spending limits

90

Political Action Committee (PAC)

Allows voters to pool their campaign donations

91

Super PAC

Not affiliated with any particular campaign, and is allowed to freely engage in “independent” spending

Were created by the 2010 decision of the Supreme Court in Citizens United

First Amendment

Priorities USA, Future 45

92

PACs and Super PACs are formed by ___

Interest groups

93

Interest groups

Seek to influence government on behalf of their members

Chamber of Commerce

AFL-CIO

Agricultural industry

94

Chamber of Commerce

A powerful interest group on behalf of business

Generally aligned with the Republican Party

Spends millions on lobbying

Many chamber employees previously worked for the government (the “revolving door” phenomenon)

95

AFL-CIO

A powerful interest group on behalf of unions

Generally aligned with the Democratic Party

11% of the American workforce is unionized. But about half of union members are public employees

35.7% of the public sector is unionized compared with 6.6% of the private sector

Spends millions on lobbying and obtains employees through the “revolving door”

American Federation of Labor & Congress of Industrial Organizations

96

Agricultural industry sponsors many interest groups

The federal government has subsidized farmers since the Great Depression

Every 5 years, Congress passes a “farm bill” authorizing hundreds of billions of dollars of spending

U.S. farm policies have increased prices for consumers (in addition to taxes)

97

Farm bill

Contains both farm subsidies and food stamp/nutrition funding

98

There are also interest groups for ____

Social issues

99

Interest groups for social issues

Planned Parenthood

NRA-ILA

100

Interest groups may engage in ____

Lobbying

101

Lobbying

Direct contact with members of congress

102

Interest groups may engage in lobbying

There are about 10,000 registered lobbyists specifically paid to influence Congress

Lobbying is highly regulated, and lobbyists must file disclosures

103

Interest groups may file ____

Lawsuits

104

Interest groups may file lawsuits

If you can’t get something through legislation, try litigation!

An interest group may file a test case on behalf of a sympathetic member who has been wronged

An interest group may file an amicus brief seeking to influence the judge in someone else’s lawsuit

105

Interest groups try to ____

Influence the public (YOU)

106

Interest groups try to influence the public

“Grassroots” campaign

AstroTurf

107

“Grassroots” campaign

Staffed by ordinary, local volunteers

108

AstroTurf

Involves paid professionals who mimic a grassroots effort

109

Political speech by ____ is generally not regulated by the Federal Election Commission

News media

110

Political speech by news media is generally not regulated by the Federal Election Commission

The FEC has considered regulating political commentary on the internet

The public has generally protested such regulation

111

The media shows bias how?

By what stories it chooses to cover...or not cover

In how it covers stories

112

The media shows bias by what stories it chooses to cover...or not cover

When Sarah Plain made a gaffe about Hawaii, the liberal media had extensive coverage

When President Obama made a similar mistake, the right-wing media covered it

113

The media also shows bias in how it covers stories

Fox News leads story with content of undercover videos

MSNBC leads story with statement by Planned Parenthood

114

The media

Will often choose the sensational over the serious

Also directly influenced by business and government interests

115

The media is also directly influenced by business and government interests

Media covers companies / Companies buy ads and suggest stories

Companies lobby the government / Government regulates companies

Media covers government / Government provides media with access

116

It can be hard to tell the difference between news and advertising

John Rutland

117

John Rutland

Cinematographer, Paranormal Activity: Ghost Dimension

118

Bureaucratic Agencies are ____

Media-savvy

119

Bureaucratic agencies are media-savvy

Agencies lobby news media for favorable coverage

They use access to import government figures as leverage over the media

Many agencies even have their own media facilities

The media may stick with “safe” stories to avoid hassle and avoid being cut out of the loop