Test 3 - Final Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101 > Test 3 - Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3 - Final Deck (159):

Social Psychology

-Social psychologists interested in studying how and why people interact


How do interactions with others affect a person’s thoughts, feelings, behaviors?

-Humans have evolved to be social beings

-Social psychology tries to answer this


Social Roles/What position does someone occupy in society?

-They can overlap; people can have more than one role

-Ex: me - student, daughter, sister, caregiver, driver, etc.


Attributions/Why did somebody behave in a particular way? What caused the behavior?

-Two types of attributions:
-Internal (dispositional): (ex: They cut me off because they’re late to something?)
-External (situational): (ex: They cut me off because they’re rude?)


Fundamental Attribution Error

-A tendency to attribute others’ behavior to internal factors

-Ex: Guy cuts you off, and you say, “He’s a bad driver; he’s reckless”

-Ex: Why is woman yelling at her companion? We say it’s she’s mad at him, when that may not even be the case!


Other Attribution Errors?

-We make different attributions for ourselves and others

-Actor-Observer Bias

-Self-Serving Bias

-Don’t forget Fundamental Attribution Error it part of this too!


Actor-Observer Bias?

-Our tendency to attribute others’ actions to internal factors, while attributing our own actions to external factors

-Ex: Guy cut you off, and you say he’s a bad driver, but you cut someone off and you say you’re in a rush


Self-Serving Bias?

-We judge our failures as due to situational factors (they’re out of our hands), but our successes as due to dispositional factors

-Ex: I got an A because I’m so smart, but I got a D because I got a flat tire, and I was worried about that instead



-May include cognitive, affective, and behavioral components

-Cognitive: beliefs, ideas
-”Gun owners are more likely to shoot a loved one than a criminal”

-Affective: emotions, feelings
-Ex: “Gun’s make me sick”

-Behavioral: actions
-Ex: “I voted for gun-control politicians



-Related to characteristics of the communicator, the message, and the audience (these three factors all matter!)

-Persuasion is more successful when:
-The communicator is attractive/likeable, appears to be credible (seems trustworthy), appears to be an expert

-The message doesn’t seem like an overt attempt to persuade us

-The message appears to present both sides of an issue

-When people are in a negative mood, they are more likely to be critical and less trusting
-May not even want to listen to what you have to say


Cognitive Dissonance. Can this state be solved?

-An uncomfortable state that occurs when behavior and attitudes do not match

-Ex: Someone who exercises, also smokes

-Ex: Think of teens performing risky behavior, and then feeling bad about doing it because it’s not how they were raised

-This state can be solved, but it isn’t easy



-A simplified set of traits that are associated with group membership

-Tend to be negative

-Doesn’t just have to be racial

-Ex: Her dad’s a professor, and they say she’s a nerd and likes school



-A preconceived opinion or attitude about an issue, person, or group

-It’s an IDEA



-The biased treatment of people based on their membership in a particular group or category

-Treating someone in a biased or unfair way simply because they belong to certain group

-Overlaps with prejudice and stereotypes

-It’s an ACTION


Reducing Prejudice

-Increase contact in cooperative activities

-Especially with kids, this is important!

-Interacting with different groups

-Ex: doing group work



-Behaving in ways that increase the likelihood of gaining a group’s approval and avoiding rejection


Who created conformity experiment, and what was it about?

-Solomon Asch

-The line experiment thing!



-Agreeing to do something simply because we have been asked

-Compliance and obedience line can get blurry



-Complying with instructions given by an authority figure

-More serious than compliance because it’s given by an authoritative figure


Who did an obedience experiment?

-Dr. Stanley Milgram

-Shock experiment (wanted to study why Holocaust happened)

-Studied only men


Social Facilitation

-Occurs when the presence of other people changes individual performance

-Might do better or worse if family member/crush/friend is there

-Ex: With sports’ drivers exam; at work/ when police is watching you


Social Loafing

-Reduced motivation and effort by individuals who work in a group as opposed to work alone

-Ex: group projects; with teams



-Immersion of the individual within a group, making the individual relatively anonymous

-Ex: With group, we see someone drop a box, and nobody in the group helps, so you don’t either

-Related to bystander effect



-A type of flawed decision making in which a group does not question its decisions critically

-Group doesn’t analyze situation critically

-Happens a lot within politics

-Ex: horrible bill gets passed, and we don’t understand how it even happened



-An act done with the intent to harm others

-Several Contributing Factors:
-Biology (hormones)
-Frustration (when frustrated, tend to be more aggressive)
-Learning (tied to frustration; learn to behave aggressively from others)

-Going to have negative outcomes (usually)


Can you have aggression without violence?




-Engaging in helping behaviors without the expectation of any personal gain

-Ex: volunteering; what parents to do for their kids


Bystander Apathy

-a.k.a bystander effect

-People’s willingness to lend help deceases when others are around

-Less likely to help when others are around

-The more people around, the less likely you are to help -- deindividuation happens



Sources of Stress

-Major life events (don’t all have to be negative)
-Ex: wedding

-Ex: hurricanes; shootings

-Daily hassles
-Ex: traffic; finding parking on campus



Scale of that measures stressful events?

-Holmes and Rahe

-Social Readjustment Rating Scale



-Uncontrollable disasters that can be traumatic
-Affect both physical and mental health

-She thinks of them to be more global disasters and impacting a lot of people

-Shootings, hurricanes, fires, and other natural disasters


Extremities of Stress: Trauma and PTSD

-People who experience trauma won’t always experience PTSD


Daily Hassles

-May add to stress of major life events

-May just be part of daily life



-Approach-Approach Conflict: Both good outcomes
-Solve problem by satisfying both sometimes?
-Ex: see latest superhero movie or see latest comedy

-Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict: Avoiding both alternatives
-Both bad options
-Ex: Withdraw from a required class or stay in class and get a D or an F

-Approach-Avoidance Conflict: One good option, but there’s something not desirable about it
-Ex: Dogs are cute and cuddly, but you need to wake up early for walks


The Experience of Stress

-Acculturative and minority stress
-Acculturative: someone migrates to another country and experiences stress (ex: with language, social life, etc.) (could just be child of immigrant too)
-Minority: discrimination, diet issues; very similar to acculturative (doesn’t have to be just immigrants, can be LGBTQ community too)

-Poverty and stress

-Resilience in the face of stress


Chronic Stress?

-Stress that lasts for a long time


Stress and Health. How does stress stress affect health?

-Immune System: becomes suppressed and weakened
-Ex: get sick week before finals

-Heart Disease: raised blood pressure, stress eating, smoking


A Biopsychosocial Model of Health

-“Bio” = genes (ex. Get certain disease)

-”Psycho” = personality; addictive behaviors

-”Social” = relationships; friendships; support system

-Individual Differences: genes, development, experience

-Perceived Stress: threats, helplessness, vigilance

-Behavioral Responses: fight or flight, personal behavior (e.g., diet, smoking, drinking, exercise)

-LOOK IN 11/16/2017 PACKET


Cognitive Appraisal

-Is this a threat, harm, or challenge?
-Body evaluates whether it’s a danger, threat, harm, or challenge
-Not necessarily conscious
-Ex: see guy with mask following you, heart rate increases because it’s a threat

-How can I cope or manage this stressor?
-Your solution
-Ex: decide to call campus security to be escorted


Coping with Stress -- Approaches

-Problem-focused coping
-wanting to change what is going on in environment
-ex: finding new job because you hate your current one (Mera)
-Men are more this type

-Emotion-focused coping
-Want to change emotions
-Ex: feel sad and cry, so you try and find a way to make you feel better (in situations you can’t change usually)
-Women are more this type, or they can be equal with this and problem-focused


Coping with Stress -- Defensive Mechanisms



-Reaction Formation


-Sublimation - don’t have to be negative (ex: exercise)


-Projection - more about ideas, behaviors

-Displacement - more emotional



-Refusing to accept or acknowledge the reality of a situation or idea



-Devising a plausible reason or motive to explain one’s behavior


Reaction Formation

-Engaging in a behavior or attitude that is at the opposite extreme of one’s true motive or impulse



-Returning to an earlier stage of development in one’s behavior, thinking, or attitudes

-Ex: stick tongue out; make a face; etc.



-Directing emotions into an activity that is more constructive and socially acceptable



-Excluding wishes, impulses, ideas, or memories from consciousness



-Attributing one’s own ideas, feelings, or attitudes to other people



-Directing emotions toward a less threatening source


Stress Management Techniques

-Progressive relaxation

-Image in a calm environment
-Try to be optimistic
-Be spiritual
-Manage time wisely

-Develop social support
-Talk with friends
-FInd community
-She finds this one most important

-If poor stress management, psychological disorders can arise, anxiety disorders, illnesses, higher blood pressure, stress eating (so obesity)


Medical Model

-What we abide by nowadays

-18th and 19th century

-”Abnormal behavior is a disease”
-Before Medical Model emerged, individuals with abnormal behavior were thought to be possessed by demons or to be witches, and were treated inhumanely with chants, rituals, exorcisms, etc.


Classification System

-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5th Edition (DSM-5)

-Categorical (before DSM-5) vs. dimensional (how DSM-5 is working (sort of); ex: mild, moderate, severe depression; how many symptoms) approaches


Abnormal Behavior: Criteria

-Deviance: goes against norms

-Maladaptive behavior: behavior that is not adaptive/productive/can be hurtful or harmful (ex: not showering)

-Personal distress



-Two or more disorders


Alan’s performance at work has suffered because he’s been drinking alcohol to excess. Several co-workers have suggested he seek help for his problems, but he thinks they’re getting alarmed over nothing. “I just enjoy a good time once in awhile,” he says. Type of disorder?

-Substance use disorder (with alcohol)


Monica has gone away to college and feels lonely, sad, and dejected. Her grades are fine, and she gets along okay with the other students in the dormitory, but inside she’s choked with gloom, hopelessness, and despair.

-(Mild) depression


Boris believes that he’s Napoleon reborn. He believes he is destined to lead the U.S. military forces into a great battle to recover California from space aliens.



Natasha panics with anxiety whenever she leaves her home. Her problem escalated gradually until she was absent from work so often that she was fired. She hasn’t been out of her house in 9 months and is deeply troubled by her problem.

-Agoraphobia (type of anxiety)


Medical Model of Abnormal Behavior (Process)

1. Diagnosis: distinguishing one illness from another

2. Etiology: apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
-What happened in their life leading up to this (look at time from womb with present day)

3. Prognosis: Forecast about probable course of an illness


The Diathesis-Stress Model

-This model looks at the three factors that cause/contribute to mental health illness:
-genetics (biology)



Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

-Characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior

-NOT “split mind” or Dissociative Identity Disorder

-Common symptoms

-Prevalence: approximately 1%

-high genetic component


Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia

-They’re there, but they shouldn’t be there

-more like beliefs

-visual or auditory
-this predominantly (more than hallucinations)

-Disorganized speech (world salad):
-not coherent at all

-Disordered behavior (head banging, childlike silliness, inappropriate sexual behaviors)
-hygiene goes down
-can’t hold jobs
-laughing when supposed to


Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

-Things that should be there, but aren’t there

-Blunted affect (lack of emotional expression)
-Ex: when sad, should frown, but they don’t

-Alogia (also called poverty of speech, refers to decreased quality and/or quantity of speech)
-won’t talk much

-Avolition (the inability to follow through on one’s plans. A person with schizophrenia may seem apathetic, sitting for long periods of time, showing little interest in his or her usual activities you may have once enjoyed)


Depressive Disorders

-Major Depressive Disorder:
-Common Symptoms: may involve depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in one’s usual activities

-Changes in sleep patterns (increase or decrease), appetite (increase or decrease), and motor functioning (more sluggish; walk slower)

-Loss of energy

Prevalence: 13% - 20% (depending on gender)
-13% = closer to men’s estimate
-20% = closer to women’s estimate, but women may just be more likely to report (underreporting by men)


Bipolar Disorders

-Bipolar disorder involves a shift in mood between two states, or poles. One of these shifts is to a depressed state, with symptoms similar to those of major depressive disorder

-In Bipolar I disorder, the second mood change is to the opposite extreme -- to a “high” or euphoric state, called mania (natural high -- like on drug)

-Bipolar II disorder is similar, but depressive states alternate with hypomanic states (less severe than manic; “hypo” = lower; can just look like extreme productivity)

-Bipolar disorders are less common than depressive disorders with 2.6% of adult Americans experiencing an episode of bipolar disorder at some time in their lives
-Men are just as likely as women to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder
-The median age of onset: late adolescence and early adulthood


Why do women have higher rates of depression?

-women are genetically at risk for depression, and ovarian hormones may influence serotonin levels

-women tend to ruminate about problems, and relationships are a key part of a woman’s self-worth

-women’s lower social status is a risk factor for stressors, and the female gender role encourages dependence and passivity


What is the most common mental health issue?

-Substance use disorders


Anxiety Disorders

-Generalized Anxiety: 5-6%

-Panic Disorder: 2-3%

-Phobias: 10%


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

-Obsessions: persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts. THOUGHTS.

-Compulsions: urges to engage in senseless rituals. BEHAVIORS.

-Used to be anxiety disorder, but not anymore

-Not OCD if people just like things a specific way

-Prevalence: 2-3%


Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

-Enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event

-Does NOT have to be combat trauma

-Common symptoms:
-think back to it often
-recurring thoughts (hard to turn off)
-nightmares about it
-follows you

-Ex: could be directly experienced, or a friend, or maybe even losing a loved one

-Prevalence: 7%


Substance Use Disorders

-Specified by the kind of substance

-Problematic pattern of use

-Most common type of disorders!

-tolerance is big problem
-tolerance goes up → they have need more of the drug

-Prevalence (3 most common)
-Alcohol: 4-16%, depending on age
-Cannabis: 2%
-Opioid: <1%


Substance Use Disorders: AUDIT

-A score of 8 or more is associated with harmful or hazardous drinking

-Score likely to indicate alcohol dependence:
-A score of 13 or more in women

-A score of 15 or more in men



-You need the drug or you might go through withdrawal symptoms


OCD and Anxiety Disorders: VIDEO (Psychological Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, OCD, GAD,Panic Disorder, Phobias, Social Anxiety Disorder, Source of Anxiety)

-We tend to minimize disorders, using them as nicknames to things people do, think, or say

-Psychological Disorders: a deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional pattern of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that interferes with the ability to function in a healthy way

-Anxiety disorders aren’t a matter of fear itself

-Anxiety disorders are characterized not only by distressing, persistent anxiety, but also often by the dysfunctional behaviors that reduce that anxiety

-OCD: characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts, which become obsessions, sometimes accompanied by actions, which become compulsions, and they often use these compulsive, often ritualistic behaviors to relieve intense and unbearable anxiety

-Generalized Anxiety Disorders: continually tense and apprehensive, experiencing unfocused, negative, and out-of-control feelings

-Panic Disorder: sudden episodes of intense dread or sudden fear that come without warning (chest pains, racing heart, difficulty breathing)
-common trigger for is simply the fear of having another panic attack

-Phobias: persistent, irrational fears of specific objects, activities, or situations
-IMPORTANT: results in avoidance behavior

-Gephyrophobia: fear of bridges

-Social Anxiety Disorder: characterized by anxiety related to interacting or being seen by others

-Source of Anxiety: conditioning, observational learning, and cognition

-Some researchers have detected 17 different genes that seem to be expressed with various anxiety disorders



-Therapy treats a full range of human problems of distress and dysfunction
-Anxiety and depression are most common among adults

-Women and Caucasians are more likely to seek treatment than men or minorities

-About ⅓ of people get treatment who need it



-Intrapsychic conflict (between id, ego, and superego) → Anxiety → Reliance on defense mechanisms

-Focuses on the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses

-abandoning defense mechanisms and resolving conflicts
-bringing stuff from unconscious to conscious and resolving them


Psychoanalysis Techniques

-Free Association:
-client spontaneously expresses thoughts/feelings
-talk about whatever comes to mind, sometimes makes no sense
-no reflection by therapist really

-Dream Analysis:
-Therapist interprets symbolic meanings

-Client’s defense mechanisms that hinder therapy

-Client relates to therapist in ways that mimic other important relationships
-Not specific to psychoanalysis
-Ex: therapist can be role model to patients; maybe therapist seen as mother, and maybe treat them like they would their mother


Client Centered Therapy

-Focuses on providing a supportive, emotional climate

-Unconditional, positive regard

-To develop self-acceptance through becoming comfortable with the genuine self (be okay with strengths and weaknesses)


Conditions of Client-Centered Therapy

-communicating with honesty

-Unconditional Positive Regard:
-nonjudgmental acceptance of the client
-acceptance of client

-understanding a client’s point of view
-empathy is not sympathy
-try to put yourself in their shoes
-more emotional than sympathy
-not important just for client-centered


Therapeutic Techniques of Client-Centered Therapy

-client/therapist are equals
-therapist does not provide guidance or advice
-the therapist acts as a mirror, reflecting emotions and themes with enhanced clarity

-Summarizing what they said and therapist tries to imagine patient's’ emotional reactions

-Identifying themes that might be causing patient distress or just in their life, how it’s impacting them, and if it’s resulting in any mental disorders

-*psychoanalysis is more judgement and advice-driven


Group Therapy

-The simultaneous treatments of several clients

-Client's Role:
-acceptance and emotional support
-practice social skills (practice empathy)
-interpersonal feedback
-trade coping strategies

-Therapist’s Role:
-selecting participants
-setting goals
-moderating the therapeutic process


Behavior Therapies

-Involve principles of learning and conditioning to direct efforts to change clients’ maladaptive behaviors

-Doesn’t really care where problems came from; cares about changing them and moving forward

-Based on 2 assumptions:
-behavior is product of learning
-what has been learned can be unlearned


Systematic Desensitization

-Used to weaken the association between the conditioned stimulus (a dog) and the conditioned response of anxiety

-We want to decrease patient’s reaction


Systematic Desensitization Three Steps

1. Therapist helps build client build an anxiety hierarchy

2. Deep Muscle Relaxation
-seen in progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) (one first tightens and then relaxes various muscle groups in body)
-client should be focusing on contrast between initial tension and subsequent feelings of relaxation
-after discovering how muscles feel when they are deeply relaxed, repeated practice enables person to recreate the relaxed sensation intentionally

3. Client tries to work through the hierarchy, learning to remain relaxed while imagining each stimulus
-important to achieve a state of calm before moving up anxiety hierarchy
-pace of therapy will depend on client’s progress in each session (therapy can occur outside of therapy room and actually involve exposure to fears)


Cognitive -- Behavioral Treatments

-Involves correcting “habitual thinking errors”

-Derived from behavioral therapy, but has more of a cognitive (“thinking”) component

-According to cognitive therapists, depression and other disorders are caused by “errors” in thinking

-Ex: assert that depression-prone people tend to:
-blame their setbacks on personal inadequacies without considering circumstantial explanations
-focus selectively on negative events while ignoring positive events
-make unduly pessimistic projections about the future
-draw negative conclusions about their worth as a person based on insignificant events


Effectiveness of Behavior Therapies

-Lots of research!

-Strict behavioral therapies effective for:
-sexual dysfunction
-drug problems
-eating disorders

-CBT effective for:
-and many more…


Criticism of Drug Therapies

-Not as effective as advertised
-High relapse rates

-Drugs are overprescribed

-Side effects are underestimated

-Pharmaceutical industry has heavy influence on drug research
-financial conflicts


Blending Approaches to Treatment

-Multiple approaches may be useful, particularly if there is a treatment team

-Current trend it away from a singular approach



-Drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one system


Institutional Treatment

-1950s: mental hospitals not really working

-1960s: community mental health movement (deinstitutionalization)

-Problems associated with deinstitutionalization
-”revolving door” patients
-homeless mentally ill


The decrease in individual effort exerted by group members when working together on a task is known as

Social Loafing


You believe that short men have a tendency to be insecure. The concept of illusory correlation implies that you will

Overestimate the frequency of insecure short men


The idea that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners refers to the

Matching hypothesis


Harboring negative thoughts and feelings about a person because of his or her membership in a particular group defines



People tend to see the diversity among the members of the ____ but overestimate the homogeneity of the ____.

Ingroup; outgroup


You’ve just been awarded a full scholarship for next year, which you perceive as confirmation of your superior intellectual ability. According to Weiner’s model, you are making an ____ attribution about your success.



In his Stanford Prison study, Zimbardo found that

Situational factors have a powerful impact on social behavior


When an observer is biased in favor of making internal attributions in explaining others’ behavior, the observer is making

The fundamental attribution error


Widely held beliefs about groups of people based on their group membership defines



The state that exists when related cognitions are inconsistent or contradict one another is known as

Cognitive Dissonance


Groups seeking donations often ask people to simply sign a petition first. This approach illustrates which of the following social influence techniques?

Foot-in-the-door technique


A positive or negative evaluation of an object of thought defines

An opinion


Research has revealed that attitudes are

Mediocre predictors of behavior


When Sue’s friends decide to go to a movie instead of a restaurant, Sue goes along with them because she is afraid her friends will reject her if she doesn’t. Sue’s behavior is being influenced by

Normative influence


A group that one belongs to and identifies with is known as

An ingroup


Social psychological research has repeatedly shown that people’s common sense explanations for human behavior are often wrong. This illustrates the unifying theme from the textbook concerning the importance of



Research indicates that when women are approaching ovulation, they prefer men who are

Masculine and dominant


One’s risk of developing heart disease is related to the amount of stress in one’s life, whether ones has Type A personality, is depressed, is obese, or smokes. This partial list of risk factors BEST reflects the unifying theme in psychology that

Behavior is determined by multiple causes


The idea that emotional tension can be released through behavior and that this response may be adaptive is known as



The body’s defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, and other foreign substances is referred to as the

Immune response


Demands or expectations to behave in a certain way define the notion of



When you tell yourself that you will never be happy again now that your significant other has ended the relationship, you are engaging in what Albert Ellis calls

Catastrophic thinking


Stress responses affect the individual

Emotionally, physiologically, and behaviorally


The component of Type A personality associated with coronary heart disease appears to be



Laboratory experiments with cardiology patients have shown that brief periods of mental stress

Can trigger acute symptoms of heart disease


What is an example of a stressful situation that involves frustration?

You want to go to the big game tomorrow, but the game is sold out


Finding humor in a stressful situation...?

Can help to reduce stress by promoting social support


What is NOT one of the primary reasons people procrastinate seeking medical attention when faced with a medical emergency such as a heart attack?

People enjoy visiting their physicians


Two blockbuster movies are opening on the same weekend and Andrea is having trouble deciding which movie to see first. Andrea is experiencing

An approach-approach conflict


Stress effects appear to be moderated by the

Hypothalamus activating the sympathetic nervous system


A change in your marital status, a job change, moving, having a baby, and getting promoted are all examples of

Life changes


In dealing with stress, coping responses

May be adaptive or maladaptive



Can be hindered by stress


Studies have shown that if people can give up smoking,

Their overall health risks decline reasonably quickly


Coping techniques that involve self-deception to distort reality in order to make a situation appear less threatening are referred to as

Defensive coping


Correlations between mood disorders and a variety of structural abnormalities in the brain suggest that reduced volume in the ____ is related to depression.



A disorder that typically follows a very painful event and is characterized by a reliving of that event, avoidance of stimuli associated with the event, or numbing of general responsiveness is

Posttraumatic stress disorder


A concordance rate indicates

​the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder.


Insanity is a

legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness.


The prognosis is poorer for schizophrenics who (following hospitalization) return to families characterized by

High expressed emotion


Jazmine has just returned home after receiving treatment for schizophrenia. The clinician who is supervising her case is aware that Jazmine’s family is high in expressed emotion. Under these conditions, Jazmine

Has a high risk of relapse


The disorder that is characterized by chronic worry and fear, muscle tension, trembling, and faintness is known as a

Generalized anxiety disorder


Kevin hears voices singing even though none are present. Kevin suffers from



According to Mowrer, phobic responses are acquired through ____ conditioning and maintained through ____ conditioning

Classical; operant


Recent research indicates that having close relatives with schizophrenia increases one’s risk for

Autism and bipolar disorder


Earlier age of onset of depression is associated with

More severe symptoms and poorer prognosis


The evidence available today suggests

A moderately strong link between stress and the onset of mood disorders


Walter is only able to achieve sexual arousal by dressing in women’s clothing. In the American culture, his behavior would MOST likely be considered



Alexia started a new job on Monday morning. For the first three days, she showed up in bright colors and was outgoing and extroverted. However, on Thursday, she showed up in a dark suit and appeared shy and introverted. She insisted that her name was Clara, and she couldn’t understand why her coworkers kept calling her Alexia. In this example, Alexia is showing symptoms that are consistent with

Dissociative identity disorder


Research concerning the etiology of schizophrenic disorders has implicated excessive activity of the neurotransmitter(s)



According to Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, depressed people who tend to ruminate about their depression

Remain depressed longer


It is MOST accurate to state that while an individual with major depressive disorder experiences episodes of ____, a person with a bipolar disorder experiences episodes of ____.

Depression; both depression and maniacs


The rise of the medical model in the study of psychopathology brought about

Improvements in the treatment of individuals who exhibited abnormal behavior


Alvin suffers from both major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Alvin’s diagnoses illustrate that mental disorders can be



Free association and dream analysis were held to be major methods to explore

The unconscious


A form of behavior therapy that emphasizes modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping and is designed to improve interpersonal skills is

Social skills training


Therapy designed to help a client develop self-knowledge and thus progress to healthy changes in personality and behavior is known as

Insight therapy


In client-centered therapy, the therapist’s key task is



The practice of therapy that involves drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one is known as

An eclectic approach to therapy


What characteristics have theorists proposed that all insight therapies have in common?

Development of a therapeutic alliance

Opportunity to express feelings

Emotional support and empathy


The shortage of therapists in many areas had led to an increased focus on

Delivering therapy over the phone and/or Internet


What is true about group therapy?

The therapist often plays relatively subtle role

Group participants essentially function as therapists for each other

Therapy groups typically consist of 4 to 12 participants


A psychotherapist who participates in complex verbal interactions with clients in order to enhance clients’ understanding of themselves and their problems would be classified as

An insight therapist


The theoretical difference between a clinical psychologist and a counseling psychologist is that

The clinical psychologist specializes in the treatment of mental disorders

The counseling psychologist specializes in the treatment of everyday adjustment


Deinstitutionalization means that

The mentally ill should be treated at community-based facilitates that emphasizes outpatient care


Dr. Brittain uses a therapeutic technique that focuses on providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who in turn play a major role in determining the pace and direction of therapy. Dr. Brittain is MOST what type of therapist?

Client-centered therapist


You make an appointment to see a therapist, and at your first meeting, the therapist tells you that he believes most psychological disorders are a result of negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs. What type of therapist are you seeing?



Psychotherapists who are ____ tend to be the most expensive.

In private practice


When Donovan was four years old, he was startled and began to cry when a car backfired just as he was walking past a fire hydrant. As an adult, Donovan is still fearful of fire hydrants and avoids walking near them. Based on principles of classical conditioning, Donovan’s current fear of fire hydrants is

A conditioned response